Genealogie Wylie » Joshua Kittrell [KB 16] (± 1783-1860)

Persoonlijke gegevens Joshua Kittrell [KB 16] 


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Voorouders (en nakomelingen) van Joshua Kittrell

William Bryant
± 1724-1773
Tabitha Bryant
± 1756-> 1804

Joshua Kittrell
± 1783-1860

1809

Martha Green
> 1782-????

Joshua Kittrell
1810-< ????

Gezin van Joshua Kittrell [KB 16]

Hij is getrouwd met Martha Green.

op 25 december 1809 te Franklin County, North Carolina.


Kind(eren):

  1. Joshua Kittrell  1810-< ???? 
  2. Sarah T. Kittrell  1818-1878 
  3. Elizabeth T. Kittrell  ± 1821-???? 


Notities over Joshua Kittrell [KB 16]

K1416
1803
"231, 232, 233, 234, 235 [Book 5, 1799-1803 of the court or estate records of Granville County]-May Court 1802 - Account of sale of estate of Jonathan Kittrell, deceased, by Bryant Kittrell, admstr." Page 255, Abstracts of the Wills and Estate Records of Granville County, North Carolina, 1746-1808, Zoe Hargett Gwynn, Abstractor; Publisher, Joseph W. Watson, 406 Piedmont Avenue, Rocky Mount, North Carolina, 1973.

"228, 229, 230 [Book 5, 1799-1803 of the court or estate records of Granville County]-February Court 1802 - Committee appointed to divide the negroes of Jonathan Kittrell, deceased, to his widow and children: Tabitha Kittrell, Bryant Kittrell, Thomas Blacknall [husband of Mary Kittrell, known daughter of Jonathan Jr., whose surname here is written Blackwell], William Kittrell, Isaac Kittrell, Joshua Kittrell, Isham Kittrell and Fielding Kittrell." Pp. 254-55, Abstracts of the Wills and Estate Records of Granville County, North Carolina, 1746-1808, Zoe Hargett Gwynn, Abstractor; Publisher, Joseph W. Watson, 406 Piedmont Avenue, Rocky Mount, North Carolina, 1973.

1810 Franklin County, NC
KITTREL, JOSHUA (1810 U.S. Census) NORTH CAROLINA , FRANKLIN, NO TWP LISTEDSeries: M252 Roll: 40 Page: 174
5th from the bottom on same page as William Kittrell
Joshua Kittrel 0011000100006

1860
KITTRELL, JOSHUA (1860 U.S. Census) ALABAMA , TALLAPOOSA, DE SOTO P OAge: 76, Male, Race: WHITE, Born: NCSeries: M653 Roll: 25 Page: 42

Louisa Kittrell Gentry & spouse Martin R. Gentry & family, true research

Louisa Kittrell Gentry & spouse Martin R. Gentry & family, true research Chief Scribe - Nov 2, 2003 View | Edit | Delete | Viewers | Replyto this itemCategories: 19th Century, Civil War, Civil War History, Civil WarRecords, Joshua Kittrell [sJoshsJIIIsJIIsJI] =20Dec1837MillyStanfield(Rthrfrd), Kittrells in Georgia, Kittrells inGeorgia: Heard County, Ophelia Octavia Gentry[dLJd*JshdJsh]GA(c1853-89)=70FrncsNCoulonFRANCE, Posting Adjectivesinclude: [Secondary] Documentation from the www, Posting Adjectivesinclude: Admirably Done!!, Posting Adjectives include: UniquelyDone!, Posting Adjectives include: Words ONLY captured for ourprivate use, To be ignored as it was already on current Family Tree(or at Notes), Work including family histories or treesHistorical Files, H45by Clinton R. HaggardReturn to Gary Foster's Haggard Home Page Historical FilesReturn to Surnames.com <http://Surnames.com \ _blank> Home PageHenrietta Gentry, G3238A, daughter of Joshua and Adaline (Henry)Gentry, was born December 1849, Marion County, MO, married November1868, Stephen Glasscoco, born ca. 1847. They had seven children:1. Adaline Glasscock, born 27 December 1870, Marion County, MO,married 16 May 1894, John B. Drake.2. Mary Lucy Glasscock, born 18 July 1875, Marion County, MO, married11 September 1900, Claude C. Tarlton.3. Davila W. Glasscock, born 7 November 1877, Marion County, MO,married 27 August 1900, Thomas Bryon.4. Henry Hobson Glasscock, born 5 September 1879, Marion County, MO.5. Henrietta G. Glasscock, born 18 March 1882, Marion County, MO.6. Catherine P. Glasscock, born 3 October 1886, Marion County, MO.Ione "Onie" Gentry, G325, daughter of David and Mary (Estes) Gentry,was born in 1767, Albemarle County, VA, died in 1863, Madison County,KY, married first, ca. 1787, David Martin, son of William and Sarah(Harris) Martin. They had a son:1. David Martin, born ca. 1788, Madison County, KY.Ione "Onie" Gentry, G325, married secondly ca. 1790, Madison County,KY, William Blythe who moved to Kentucky with Daniel Boone in 1780.They had three children:2. Maj. James Blythe, born 1791.3. Polly Blythe, ca. 1793, married Henry Keynote.4. Sally Blythe, ca, 1795, married John Cross.Ione "Onie" Gentry, G325, married thirdly 1801, John Cain, and hadthree children:5. Minnie Cain born ca. 1802, married Philip Robertson.6. Thomas Cain, born ca. 1804, Madison County, KY.7. Celia Cain, born ca. 1806, married Washington Conner.Nicholas Gentry, III, G33, son of Nicholas and Mary (Brooks) Gentry,II, was born in 1726, Hanover County, VA, died in 1787, Louisa County,VA, married first ca 1752, Elizabeth Stringer, and had nine children:1. Mildred "Milly" Gentry, G331, born ca. 1851, Louisa County, VA,married ca. 1767, William Whitlock.2. David Gentry, G332, born 1754, Louisa County, VA.3. Nicholas Gentry, IV, G333, born 1756, Louisa County, VA, believedto be a Revolutionary War soldier.4. John Gentry, G334, born 1758, Louisa County, VA.5. Martin Gentry, G335, born 1760, Louisa County, VA.6. Sarah Gentry, G336, born 2 October 1761, Charlottesville, Louisa,VA, died 23 January 1841, Hardin County, KY, married 1785, JamesSmith.7. Nancy Gentry, G337, born ca. 1762, Charlottesville, Louisa, VA,married March 7, 1780, Thomas Bailey.8. Blackston Gentry, G338, born 1763, Bedford County, VA.9. Frances "Fanny" Gentry, G339, born ca. 1767, Charlottesville, VA.Nicholas Gentry, III, G33, married secondly ca. 1771, Sarah Dickens,and had seven children:10. Henry Gentry, G33A, born 1772, married 1804, Pina Hall.11. Zechariah Gentry, G33B, born ca. 1775.12. Wesley Gentry, G33C, born ca. 1777, had one son.13. James Richard Gentry, G33D, born 1779.14. Sarah Pettine Gentry, G33E, born 8 July 1781.15. Robert Gentry, G33F, born 3 April 1784.16. Benajah Brooks Gentry, G33G, born 22 May 1785.David Gentry, G332, son of Nicholas Gentry, III, was born 1754, LouisaCounty, VA, died 16 July 1847, Overton County, TN, married ca. 1791,Elizabeth J. Smith who died 1801, TN; married secondly, 12 May 1807,Sarah Johnson. David was a Revolutionary War soldier. Issue:1. Lucinda Gentry, G3321, born 30 November 1792, SC.2. L. C. Gentry, G3322, born ca. 1794.3. Thomas Gentry, G3323, born ca. 1796.4. David Gentry, G3324, born ca. 1798.Lucinda Gentry, G3321, daughter of David and Elizabeth J. (Smith)Gentry, was born 30 November 1792, SC, married 1808, Francis Davidson,born 22 May 1788, died after 1850, son of John and Nancy (Porter)Davidson. They had ten children:1. Martin Davidson, G33211, born 1 March 1809.2. Nancy Davidson, G33212, born 9 November 1810, died 14 April 1864,married Henry Neeson McCallom who died 6 September 1875.3. Blaine Davidson, G33213, born 25 January 1813, married JudithFrench, born in 1816.4. Eliza Davidson, G33214, born 18 November 1817.5. Mirena Davidson, G33215, born 9 May 1819.6. Pearson Davidson, G33216, born 9 January 1822.7. Ambrose Davidson, G33217, born 4 October 1824.8. Minerva Davidson, G33218, born 5 April 1827.9. Elizabeth Jane Davidson, G33219, born 21 May 1830, died 13 February1913, married twice, first to Martin Smith, and secondly to hisbrother Thomas Allen Smith.10. Eliza Ann Davidson, G3321A, born 29 September 1835, married first,George W. Sevier, born 4 April 1832, died 7 December 1863, marriedsecondly, John Allen French.John Gentry, G334, son of Nicholas Gentry, III, was born 1758, LouisaCounty, VA, settled in Bullitt County, KY. He was a Revolutionary Warsoldier, married ca. 1779, Mildred "Milly" Edwards, and had fourchildren:1. John Gentry, G3341, born ca. 1780.2. Wyatt Gentry, G3342, born ca. 1782, settled in Clinton, IN.3. Martin Gentry, G3343, born ca. 1784.4. Elizabeth Gentry, G3344, born ca. 1786.Martin Gentry, G335, son of Nicholas Gentry III, was born 1760, LouisaCounty, VA, was a Revolutionary War soldier and died in 1863 (103years old), married 1785, Oglethorpe, GA, Margaret Lowry, and hadeleven children:1. William Gentry, G3351, born ca. 1786, Oglethorpe, GA.2. Richard Gentry, G3352, born ca. 1788, Oglethorpe, GA.3. Seaborn Gentry, G3353, born ca. 1790, Oglethorpe, GA.4. Alfred Gentry, G3354, born ca. 1792, Oglethorpe, GA, settled in Mississippi.5. Perry Gentry, G3355, born ca. 1794, Oglethorpe, GA.6. John D. Gentry, G3356, born ca. 1796, Oglethorpe, GA.7. David Gentry, G3357, born ca. 1798, Oglethorpe, GA.8. James Gentry, G3358, born ca. 1800, Oglethorpe, GA.9. Ransom Gentry, G3359, born ca. 1802, Oglethorpe, GA.10. Nancy Gentry, G335A, born ca. 1804, Oglethorpe, GA.11. Jane Gentry, G335B, born ca. 1806, Oglethorpe, GA.Seaborn Gentry, G3353, son of Martin and Margaret (Lowry) Gentry, wasborn ca. 1790, Oglethorpe, GA, and had at least four sons:1. Martin R. Gentry, G33531, born 15 May 1829, McDonough, Henry, GA.2. Son Gentry, G33532, born ca. 1830/35, Heard County, GA.3. Son Gentry, G33533, born ca. 1835/40, Heard County, GA.4. Son Gentry, G33534, born ca. 1835/40, Heard County, GA.Martin R. Gentry, G33531, son of Seaborn Gentry, was born 15 May 1829,McDonough, Henry, GA, died 7 November 1911, Atlanta, Fulton, GA,married 25 August 1850, Heard County, GA, Louisa Jane Kittriel, born1837, GA. They had nine children:1. Wiley S. Gentry, G335311, born ca. 1852, Heard County, GA, diedbefore 1902, married ca. 1871, Eliza ?.2. Ophilia Octava Gentry, G335312, born ca. 1854, Coweta County, GA,died 1889, Newnan County, GA, married 29 May 1870, Francis NarsissCoulon.3. Sara Elizabeth Gentry, G335313, born 12 December 1855, GA.4. Mary Caroline Gentry, G335314, born 11 May 1858, Heard Co., GA.5. Martha J. "Mathie" Gentry, G335315, born 16 November 1861, GA.6. James M. Gentry, G335316, born 16 November 1863, Heard County, GA,married 1883, GA, Mattie ?.7. Cynthia Gentry, G335317, born ca. 1864, Heard County, GA, died before 1902.8. William Gentry, G335318, born ca. 1866, Heard County, GA, died before 1902.9. Litha Gentry, G335319, born ca. 1866, Heard County, GA, died before 1902.GENTRY FAMILYCompiled by RICHARD JENNINGSGreat-great-grandson of MARTIN R. GENTRY, G33531Great-grandson of OPHILIA OCTAVA GENTRY, G335312OPHILIA OCTAVA GENTRY, G335312April 1837--1907CHRONOLOGYDate/Year Event Location1854 Born Heard County, GA10 Jun 1860 1860 Census Heard County, GA29 May 1870 Married Francis Narsiss Coulon Newnan, Coweta, GA.27 Jul 1870 1870 Census "May 1871 John Matthew Coulon born "12 May 1873 Stephanie B. "Fannie" Mae" Coulon born "11 Jun 1875 Martin Adolphus Coulon born "early 1878? Laura S. Coulon born "early 1879? James D. Coulon born "5 Dec 1879 Frank Brown Coulon born Heard County, GA.11 Jun 1880 1880 Census "16 Jul 1882 Carrie Coulon born ?29 Apr 1888 Herschel Warner Coulon born ?1889 Ophilia Octava (Gentry) Coulon dies ?SUMMARY OF RESEARCHOphilia Octava Gentry, born in 1853-4, was the second child of MartinR. and Louisa Jane (Kittriel? Kittrell) Gentry. I believe she was bornin Heard County near the Georgia-Alabama border since Martin andLouisa had been married there on 25 August 1850 and were still livingthere during the 1860 Census.Ophilia's older brother was Wiley S. Coulon, born about 1852. Ayounger sister Sara Elizabeth Coulon was born 12 December 1855, andMary Ann (or Mary C.?) was born 11 May 1858. When the1860 Census wastaken on 10 June 1860, Ophilia, age 7, was living with her parents inHeard County, GA, where her father was a farmer.Sometime following the Civil War the family moved to Newnan in CowetaCounty. That is where Ophilia (listed as "Octava Gentry" on themarriage certificate) married Frenchman Francis Narsiss Coulon on 29May 1870. J. B. S. Davis, "minister of the gospel," presided. Francis(listed as "Frank Narcissus Coulon" on the marriage certificate) was33 years old, and Ophilia was about 16.At the time of the census on 4 July 1870, Frank, 32 years old, ajeweller, and Ophilia (listed as Octava), 17, whose occupation was"keeping house," were in the Senoria Post Office area of the FirstDistrict of Coweta County (in the southeast corner of the county). Thenewlywed couple was apparently renting a room from Jarrel Townez, 43,a retired farmer, and his family (his wife Sarah, 30; his childrenDawson, 10; Randolph, 7; Beasley, 5; Lula Bell, 3; and Walter, 2months). Also occupying this dwelling were Olonzo Dix, 19-year-oldfarm laborer; William H. Morgan, age 9; and a black family: JohnTownes, 37, a teamster; his wife Jane, 28, a domestic servant; andtheir daughter Margaret, 15, also a domestic servant. Senoria,incorporated in 1867, had a population of about 1000 at this time,including three doctors, four lawyers, one newspaper, a hotel, acollege, two schools, two churches, and thirty-one businesses.Coweta was under Reconstruction Era occupation by U.S. Army troops in1870, and governmental control in Georgia was not fully returned tothe state until 1872.By the time of the birth of John Matthew Coulon in May 1871, Francisand Ophilia had moved to Newnan, the county seat in the center ofCoweta County. Newnan then had a population of about 3500. accordingto the Coweta County Tax Digest for 1872, "F. N." Coulon owned no realestate but had personal property worth $500. (Presumably most of thisvalue was the inventory of his jewelry and watchmaking business.)The couple's daughter Stephanie B., also known as Fannie Mae, was bornon 12 May 1873 in Coweta County. The family was still in Coweta Countyfor the birth of Martin Adolphus on 11 June 1875, but we do not knowwhere they were living when the next two children, Laura S. and JamesD., were born. Neither Coweta nor Heard Counties recorded births atthis time. By the end of 1879, the couple had moved back to HeardCounty where Ophilia had been born. Frank Brown was born there on 5December 1879.On 11 June 1880, according to the 1880 Census, Francis and "Octava"were living in the Houston District 102 in Heard County. Francis wasthen listed as a watchmaker, age 43, Ophilia, age 6, was keepinghouse. According to this census Ophilia could neither read nor write,and both her parents were born in Georgia. Five children were listedas living with them: John M., age 9; Stephanie B., age 7; Martin A.,age 5; Laura S., age 2; and Brown F.(actually Frank Brown) 6 monthsold. (James is not listed with the family in the 1880 Census, but weknow he was living with Francis in Atlanta and working as a painterthere in 1903-05.) The village of Houston was started in 1870 but isnow extinct. The population of Heard County in 1880 was 8769, of which64.8% were white and 35.2% were black.A statewide directory for 1881-82 - "The Georgia State Gazetteer andBusiness Directory" lists "F. Coulon" under the category of "Watches,Clocks and Jewelry" in Newnan. Carrie was born on 16 July 1882,possibly in Heard County or Coweta. The couple's final child, HerschelWarner (my grandfather), was born on 29 April 1888. We do not knowwhere they were living at the time; neither Coweta nor Heard Countiesregistered births in this period, and nearly all of Heard County'spre-1893 records were destroyed by fire. Ophilia died the followingyear at age 35 and was buried in Newnan. We do not know which cemeteryshe was buried in, or whether her grave has an identifying marker. Sheis not listed in indexes I have reviewed so far for persons buried inNewnan cemeteries.We do not know the cause of death, and know of no pictures of Ophilia.Her life appears to have been brief, hard and taken up with caring forher eight small children. Her husband Francis was much older, with areputation for arrogance, and a sharp temper. I have not yet heard anystories about Ophilia or her personality.I cannot tell from the record how much contact Ophilia had with herparents and siblings after her marriage. Her parents had moved fromNewnan probably soon after Ophilia's marriage (since they are notlisted in the 1872 Tax Digest for Coweta), and were in Rock Mills, AL,across the border from Heard County for the 1880 Census. from theAtlanta City Directory, however, we know that Ophelia's widowerhusband Francis, and presumably the children too, had some contactwith Ophelia's father, Martin Gentry, since Francis Coulon is listedas living at Martin Gentry's address in the 1904 Atlanta Directory.MARTIN R. GENTRY (Father of Ophilia Octava Gentry)15 May 1829 - 7 November 1911CHRONOLOGYDate/Year Event Location15 May 1829 Born Henry County, GA1830 1830 Census "1840 1840 Census Newton County, GA23 Mar 1848-11 Aug 1848 Enlisted in Mexican War Dalton GA11 Aug 1850 1850 Census Heard County, GA25 Aug 1850 Married Louisa Jane Kittriel ?1852? Wiley (Wyley?) S. Gentry born ?1854 Ophilia Octava Gentry born ?12 Dec 1855 Sara Elizabeth Gentry born ?11 May 1858 Mary Ann (Caroline) Gentry born ?10 Jun 1860 1860 Census "16 Nov 1861 Martha (Mathie?) J. Gentry born ?12 May 1862 Private, Confederate Army Franklin, Heard Co., GA16 Nov 1863 James M. Gentry born ?Sep 1864 Detailed as teamster ?1865 Driving army supply train Dalton, Whitfield Co.1865? Cynthia Gentry born ?1868? William Gentry born ?27 Jul 1870 1870 Census Newnan, Coweta, GA1872? Litha Gentry born ?1 Jun 1880 1880 Census Rock Mills, Randolph, AL10 Aug 1889 First applies for pension Atlanta, Fulton, GA11 Jun 1900 1900 Census "May 1902 Veteran Pension terminated "27 Apr 1904 Congress restores Martin's pension "1910 1910 Census "7 Nov 1911 Martin R. Gentry died "SUMMARY OF RESEARCHI identified Martin R. Gentry as Ophilia Octava Gentry's father withthe 1860 Census, which shows an Ophilia, age 7, living with Martin andhis wife Louisa in Heard County, GA.As my research continued, I began to feel that Martin was somehowdrawing me toward the abundance of information that exists about him,especially in pension application files. The material contained belowderives primarily from military service records and pension records,along with census and telephone directory searches. The ConfederateArmy service record information contained in this update was foundprimarily at the National Archives in Washington, DC, and the superbGeorgia State Archives in Atlanta. The Mexican War pension informationwas found at the National Archives, while the Mexican War land warrantinformation was obtained from the National Archives Annex inRockville, Maryland. I reviewed the relevant Atlanta city directoriesat the Library of Congress.The picture that emerges from the documentary record is of a man whomade his way in life partially by bending the rules and stretching astory. This is true of his so-called "Mexican War service" - joiningup after the Senate had already approved the peace treaty that endedthe war, and spending his entire service career in an army camp inDalton, Georgia. It also appears to be the case with his possession ofa larger land warrant than he would have been entitled to even if hehad actually served in the war. His claim of having been disabled inthe Mexican War (a disability that allegedly occurred in November1847, prior to his enlistment in March 1848, and that apparentlydidn't bother him when he served 14 years later in the Civil War) isanother example of stretching a story. Finally there is the wholematter of failure to disclose, in his application for a pension as anindigent Civil War veteran, that he was already receiving a MexicanWar pension. This omission led to his being rejected for a Civil Warpension and, on a subsequent review of one of his many applicationsfor an increase in the Mexican War pension, to his losing that pensiontoo due to his lack of actual service in the Mexican, or even enuredto Mexico. An Act of Congress was finally engineered to restore theMexican War pension that he was not legally entitled to under thepension act.Martin does appear from the pension files to have been genuinelydisabled in his advanced years, and very much in need of publicassistance that was extremely hard to obtain at that time. Years offilings and applications also show that Martin became increasinglyforgetful, and a combination of poverty, poor health, and an urgentneed for assistance may have led him to recall periods of service inways that would most advance his cause rather than in terms of theexact events that had occurred forty and fifty years before. By theend, Martin was also a man who persisted in futile efforts to get thehelp he needed, refusing to give in to multiple denials of hishopeless request that his Special Act pension be raised to the samelevel as that paid to others his age. Many aspects of our modern-daywelfare bureaucracy appear from Martin's file to have been well inplace by Martin's day as we shall see - for example, onerouspaperwork, the need for assistance from lawyers without the funding topay for them, and narrow bureaucratic construction of welfarerequirements to exclude people whose needs are clearly within thespirit of the welfare law. The most chilling document I reviewed wasthe record of a vulture-like visit by a pension examiner in the yearbefore Martin's death that describes Martin's feeble condition andconcludes, seemingly with satisfaction, that Martin, "Won't live but ashort time."I. EARLY YEARSAccording to Mexican and Civil War pension applications, Martin wasborn on 15 May 1829, in McDonough, Henry County GA. My best guess asto his father is Seaborn Gentry, the only Gentry listed in HenryCounty in the 1830 Census. At the time of that census, Seaborn had onemale child (presumably Martin) under 5 years old (1825-1830) living inhis household. Moreover, as will be explained in a separate section onMartin's ancestors, Seaborn's father's name was probably Martin. Bythe 1840 census Seaborn and family were living in Newton County.Seaborn then had four children: one a male between 10 and 15(1825-1830, Martin); the second a female between 5 and 10 (1830-1835);and two males under 5 years (1835-1840). Henry County was formed in1821 out of Walton County which had been formed in 1803 from Cherokeelands and Indian land ceded to Georgia in January of that year. NewtonCounty was formed in 1821 from Jasper (formed in 1812 from Baldwin),Walton, Morgan (formed in 1807 from Baldwin and Jasper), and Henrycounties.II. MEXICAN WARMartin's pension in later years for service during the Mexican Wardeserves some explanation here. The Mexican War, which ultimately gavethe United States: Texas, New Mexico, Utah, Nevada, California, andmuch of Colorado, began in early 1846, after the U.S. annexed theasserted independent nation of Texas over Mexico's protests. PresidentPolk ordered an army led by General Zachary Taylor to the Texas-Mexicoborder in January, and within months Taylor had won battles withMexican troops near Matamoros and Monterey. After these initialsuccesses, nationalistic fervor gripped the United States. Manyvolunteered for service, and regiments were oversubscribed in severalstates. Martin was just 16 when this conflict beganMexico resisted capitulating to Polks demand that they sell to theU.S. the desired northern territories until the forces of MexicanPresident Santa Ana were ultimately defeated in Mexico City inSeptember and October of 1847. Protracted negotiations with anunstable Mexican government followed for months thereafter. TheMexicans finally accepted U.S demands on 2 February 1848, in theTreaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The treaty reached Washington two weekslater, and Polk submitted it to the Senate where it was ratified,after intense debate, on 10 March 1848. The treaty documents were thenreturned to Mexico City where ratification documents were exchangedand the treaty went into effect on 30 May 1848. American troops beganto leave Mexico City immediately, and the last contingent left on June12. Meanwhile, an eighteen-year-old Martin Gentry was finally gettinginto the act.According to corrected pension application information and landwarrant documents, Martin enlisted as a private in Captain JohnLoyall's independent company of Georgia Mounted Volunteers inLafayette, Walker County, GA, on 23 March 1848, i.e., almost two weeksafter the Senate ratified the treaty ending the Mexican War. Accordingto an affidavit he filed in 1890, Martin, at the time of enlistment,stood five foot eight or nine, had red hair, a fair complexion, blueeyes, square shoulders and weighed about 175 pounds. The company inwhich he served was commanded by Captain Francis McCurdy. He washonorably discharged on 11 August 1848 at Dalton, Georgia, 142 milesfrom home. I have a copy of his discharge certificate, signed by F. E.McCurdy. (In his first application for a Mexican War Pension, and inan affidavit filed 19 July 1890, Martin claimed that he had servedfrom July 1847 to January 1848, and that he had been partiallydisabled as a result of being thrown from a horse on 20 November 1857.The injury allegedly fractured the bone in his right shoulder andbroke his left forearm.)On 16 August 1848, Martin was in Covington, Newton County, to applyfor a land warrant based on his military service. After swearing anoath of identity before Wilson Conner, a justice of the peace, he wasissued a certificate dated 19 December 1848 by the War Departmentoffice of the Commissioner of Pensions. The certificate stated thatLand Warrant No. 43009 for 160 acres had been issued to Martin, incare of J. H. Rakestraw of Covington, and would be deposited in theGeneral Land Office authorizing the locating of the warrant "on anyquarter section of land subject to private entry." The Act of 11February 1847 providing for the land warrants for Mexican War servicepermitted issuing 160 acres (or $100 in government script) to veteranswho had served more than one year. For service of less than a year, asoldier was to receive at his option 40 acres or government script inthe amount of $25. If Martin's March to August stint counted asservice, it was certainly for less than one year. The land warrantsoften served in lieu of other payment, however, and I gather they werefairly liberally allocated to discharged veterans as the primary formof compensation.Martin quickly sold his interest in the warrant, as many othersoldiers did at the time, probably for $100 or less. On 25 December1848, he signed an agreement assigning his interest in the landwarrant certificate to William P. Turner, who was probably one of themany land speculators buying military warrants in those years. Turnerin turn sold the warrant to Edward H. Ives on 26 March 1848. Ivessubsequently exercised the warrant on the west southeast half of thesouthwest quarter section of section 33 in township 72 north of Range1 West in Fairfield, Iowa. The land warrant was ultimately issued on 3April 1854.III. MARRIAGEBy the time of the 1850 Census on 11 August, Martin, age 20, was alaborer living in Heard County with a farmer Thomas Anderson,Anderson's wife Emily, and nine-year-old son Martin V. Living nearbywas Martin's soon-to-be wife Louisa Kittrell, age 12, in the home offarmer Thomas Shackelford and his wife and five children. (Elsewherein Heard County, three Gentry families who may have been relations,i.e., brothers or possibly cousins of Martin, were living near eachother Alfred R. Gentry, age 23 (1827), and his family; James Gentry,32 (1818), and his wife; and Elisha Gentry, age 32 (1818), and wifeMartha and eight children, including a Martha, a Louisa, a John M.,and a James.)According to documents filed in connection with his pensionapplications, Martin married Louisa Jane Kittrell ("Kittriel"according to one document, and "Kittrell" according to the census) on25 August 1850. The couple was married by the farmer with whom Louisahad been living, Thomas Shackelford, who happened to be a Heard CountyJustice of the Peace. A record of the marriage was supposed to becontained in a Bible "reckord." (Any marriage record in Heard Countyprior to 1893 were destroyed in a fire that year.) According tosubsequent census and pension records, the couple had four childrenduring the next decade: Wiley in about 1852, Ophilia in 1853-54, SaraElizabeth on 12 December 1855, and Mary Ann (or Mary Caroline?) on 11May 1858.On 10 June 1850, the census shows Martin R. was a farmer, age 31,living in St. Cloud, Heard County, with Louisa, age 23 (born about1837). Their children were Wiley, age 8; OIphilia, age 7; Elizabeth,age 5; and Mary Ann, age 2. The value of Martin's personal propertywas $100. (A wealthy farmer names M. Shackelford lived nearby.)IV. CIVIL WARLincoln's election as President was in November of 1860, and by 20December, South Carolina seceded from the Union, declaring that theRepublican Party would destroy the rights of the individual states(i.e., with respect to deciding whether they would permit slavery). On3 January 1861, Georgia militia seized Fort Pulaski at the mouth ofthe Savannah River. On 19 January, a state convention was convened anda vote was taken to secede. Troops began to be raised all over thestate, and U.S. forces at the Federal Arsenal in Augusta surrendered.Georgia had at the time a population of 1,057,000, of which 466,000were slaves. Georgia sent delegates to a convention of the Deep southstates in Montgomery, Alabama, which organized the Confederate Statesof America on 4 February 1861.The 12 April attack by South Carolina forces on Fort Sumpter inCharlston and Lincoln's call for volunteers to suppress the rebellionled to an all-out war of the northern states against the southernstates (now including Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina,Georgia, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, Floridaand Texas). Georgia raised 25,000 troops by October 1861, andeventually raised 120,000 by the end of the war. The state's economyshifted from cotton to food, its industry to war goods, and its railsystem to serving the transportation needs of the Confederacy.Martin's daughter Martha, or Mathie J. according to later records, wasborn on 16 November 1861.According to cards that are part of Martin's consolidated servicerecord, Martin volunteered on 12 May 1861 at Franklin, Georgia, to aCaptain Spearman. (This would be Benjamin Toombs Spearman, who ledCompany K, 56th Infantry Regiment.) A payroll dated 13 June recordsthat Martin was paid his $50 bounty for volunteering. The company inwhich Martin served as a private was organized in June 1862 as part ofthe 55th Regiment Georgia Volunteer Infantry. The designation wassubsequently changed to the 56th Regiment, and Martin's company becameCompany K, the tenth of eleven companies that made up the regiment. Amuster roll of Heard County men who made up Company K lists 156soldiers, including a John M. Gentry (probably the son of ElishaGentry listed in the 1850 Census, who pension records show was born inHeard County in August 1836, and who died in Coweta County in March1893, leaving eight children). John volunteered the same day asMartin, 12 May, which was the same enlistment date given for most ofthe members of Company K.A bare outline of Martin's war service is suggested by the dates ofhis capture and release in the consolidated service record. Accordingto "Confederate Military History Extended Edition," edited by Gen.Clement A. Evans (Broadfoot Publishing Company, Wilmington, NC, 1987),the 56th Regiment in the spring of 1862 "was sent to east Tennessee,where it served in Stevenson's division in the recapture of CumberlandGap and the advance into Kentucky. In the fall of that year it wassent to Mississippi, sharing with other regiments of the division inthe battles and privations of the campaign which ended with thesurrender of Vicksburg. After being exchanged it participated in thebattle of Missionary Ridge and the Atlanta and Tennessee campaigns of1864. In the spring of 1865 it was consolidated with the Thirty-fourthand Thirty-ninth under the name of the latter, and part with theThirty-sixth and Forty-second as the Forty-second of Georgia. Itserved in the campaign of the Carolinas, which closed with thesurrender near Goldsboro." J. H. Harrison eventually became captain ofCompany K.A more complete and certainly more human account of life in the 56thRegiment during the war is available thanks to the phenomenal memoryof James M. Kuglar, a private in Company C, whose story was recordedin 1932 by Miss Gladys Kuglar. I have reprinted most of Mr. Kuglar'srecollections below, both because this memoir by another member of thesame regiment suggests where Martin may have been and sights he mighthave encountered during the war, and also because it is a fascinatingpersonal historical document in its own right.On the fifteenth of May (1862) the 56th regiment was reorganized . . .This place was called Camp McDonald, it being a camp of instruction,strict attention was paid to the drilling of men until the second ofJune when the regiment moved to Atlanta, GA, and guarded the cityuntil the thirteenth when orders were received for Colonel Watkins toreport in Chattanooga, TN, with his regiment and accordingly early thenext morning the old freight train rolled into Chattanooga withColonel Watkins and his regiment. A few days afterwards the regimentdrew arms. By the nineteenth of June we arrived at Shell Mound, astation on the railroad, twenty miles from Chattanooga. Although itwas June the night was very cool and no wood being near the railroadthe boys tore to pieces an unoccupied house and from then untilmorning large fires were kept up in which the greater portion of thehouse was used for fuel.The next day we marched along the banks of the Tennessee River whichwas hardly visible through the dense fog. At six o'clock a skirmishtook place between our forces on one side of the river and the enemyregiment on the other side. Our regiment then returned to Chattanooga.We visited Salt Petre Cave, which begins at the northern base ofLookout Mountain. In advancing along this cave we beheld wonders whichwere new to us. On the walls which consist principally of huge rockswere hundreds of names some of which were placed there at a very earlydate. Besides the main channel there were numerous minor caves whichbranch off in every direction. About one mile from its mouth we cameto a number of Irishmen who were spading dirt from among the rocks forthe purpose of making saltpetre. Large quantities of saltpetre aretaken from this cave. A few paces from the mouth of the cave is theblowing spring from which a current of cool air is continuallygushing.Early on the following morning we started on a freight train forKnoxville. Our regiment then numbered about one thousand. We traveledby Dalton, Georgia, and reached Knoxville on the following day. Werode on the cars from Knoxville to Chattanooga. It rained during thenight and not having our tents stretched we got a complete wetting.On July 7 we moved thirteen miles down the railroad and pitched ourcamp which in honor of our Commanding General we gave the name of CampLedbetter. Here we remained breathing the cool mountain air, drinkingthe pure clear Tennessee water and gathering and eating the ripe blackand whortleberrie until the middle of July, when we struck our tentsand put them up again at Bridgeport, Alabama, at which place MajorPool resigned and returned home. Afterwards Captain James P. Brewsterbecame Major of the regiment. By the end of July the right wing of theregiment (including Company K?) took the train and proceeded toTyner's station. Here we were under such strict orders that no soldierwas allowed outside the guard lines. When water was wanted five menunder charge of a noncommissioned officer were sent to the spring.On the first of August, 1862, our regiment turned over its tents andmost of its cooking utensils to the quartermaster at Knoxville,Tennessee, and began to march in the direction of Kentucky. The daywas bright and clear and the rays of heat from the midday sun camedown upon us with almost melting power. The dust rose around us likesmoke from the burning prairie; this together with the cartridge-boxbuckled around the waist, gun on the shoulder, and a heavy knapsack ofclothing and a blanket on the back proved to be a very tiresome anddisagreeable to the soldier, and especially the members of our 56thregiment, many of whom were strangers to the hardships of thesoldier's life. As we marched along numbers from every company fellout of ranks, and little did we think that we had that day began acampaign of three months of almost incessant marching, day and night,part of the time with nothing to eat and no water to drink. On thefollowing day we reached Clinton, Tennessee, where we stayed for ashort time. During our stay at Clinton, the battle of Tazwell tookplace, and our regiment war ordered there as reinforcements.On August 14 we again took up the line of march, passed throughJacksboro, Tennessee, crossed the Cumberland Mountain at Big CreekGap. In a few days or so we started over this steep mountain aboutmidnight; it was so steep that hitched about twelve horses to eachpiece of artillery, fastened a long rope to the end of the tongue,which the men took hold of, and by that means the men and horsespulled them to the top of the mountain. Near the top we halted torest. Although it was then about the middle of August, we were so coldthat we kindled a fire to keep from suffering. At dawn of day wereached the top. In viewing the beautiful scenery, its wilderness andsublimity filled me with emotions of pleasure to which I had been astranger. Passing down the opposite side, we soon discovered that ithad been blockaded; great numbers of large trees had been hewn acrossthe road: huge stones had been rolled into it; all of which had beenremoved by our pioneers who were in advance of the command.The next day at sunset we arrived at the food of Pine Mountain. Thenight was dark and the mountain rough and steep, but we had to crossto the opposite side before camping. The next morning our company wasdetailed to go back over the mountain and guard the artillery whilecrossing. We all sat down to rest on top and many fell asleep fromfatigue.At this time we were attached to a brigade that was composed of acompany of artillery, commanded by Captain Waddell, and three Georgiaregiments - Colonels Watkins', Johnson's, and Barkello's - commandedby General D. Ledbetter. When we were within a few miles of Kentuckywe were informed that as soon as we entered Kentucky that we would beattacked by a body of men who termed themselves "Home Guards, but wecalled them "Bushwhackers." We were advancing on Boston, a smallvillage in Kentucky and, sure enough, at a distance of one mile fromtown, a band of these wretches, numbering about one hundred, attackedColonel Johnson's regiment which was marching in front. ColonelJohnson's men fired into them and killed several, the others fled intothe mountains. Our cavalry pursued them and took some prisoners, themajority of which took the oath of allegiance to the ConfederateStates and were immediately released. We marched into and tookpossession of the town without any further opposition. Upon enteringthe place I saw on the wall of a dry goods store, written in largeletters, "Downfall of Boston, August 13, 1882."We remained at Boston three days, during that time I was sent onpicket together with the rest of the company. We stayed on pickettwenty-four hours and our diet was green corn and roasted apples. Itwas just two days march to Barboursville, and we traveled both dayswithout having any water to drink, except a little we took from thedried-up branches, which was warm, muddy and very scarce. This was thebeginning of our suffering with thirst, for suffer we did, as theweather was extremely hot. We reached Barboursville which was situatedon the Cumberland River late in the evening. The rain came down intorrents during the night. The feeling of the poor soldiers canreadily be imagined. After marching hard all day he lay down to resthis weary limbs - the hard earth his only bed, knapsack his pillow,and a single blanket his covering; no roof under which he couldshelter, save the dark clouds and roaring winds. The officers wereallowed tents. Of course there was but little sleep; almost everyonewas drenched with rain, or might I say drowned.Our forces took a large train of wagons loaded with provisions for theYankee Army at Cumberland Gap. A great many of the wagons were takennear London, Kentucky, and were burned with the provisions in them asthey were taken by our cavalrymen who were not insufficient force toget them away.The enemy at Cumberland Gap was now completely cut off, and ourbrigade was sent down to Cumberland Ford to combat if they shouldattempt to get away.There were sixteen Yankee regiments at the gap, who were commanded byGeneral G. W. Morgan, and their only route of escape was by the way ofCumberland and Ford, which was twelve miles in the rear. It is closedin by mountains and has a defile just wide enough for a wagon road.Our brigade, numbering about twenty-five hundred guarded this narrowpassage which General Kirby took, with the remainder of his army, inline of march toward Lexington to meet a large force of the enemywhich was advancing for the purpose of relieving General Morgan.The two armies met ten miles south of Richmond at a little villagecalled Rogersville. A terrible battle was fought in which GeneralSmith was victorious, and the enemy soon gave way. The battle wasfought all the way from Rogersville. General Smith captured theenemy's artillery. He pursued them beyond the Kentucky River andcaptured almost the whole force that was engaged against him.The most remarkable feature of this fight was that General Smithcaptured more Yankees than he had men engaged in the fight. It was themost complete victory of the war, and is set down in history as thebattle of Richmond, Kentucky.We left Cumberland Ford on the 30th day of August and that night wecamped in the vicinity of Barboursville, which was a pretty nice placebut was like the whole of that mountain country, filled with Unioncitizens; even the ladies would go so far as to treat the Southernsoldier with contempt.THE BUSHWHACKERSGangs of Bushwhackers were scattered all through these mountains. Theywere nothing more or less than a band of thieves and robbers; theywould stay among the high bluffs and cliffs of rocks, along the mostwilderness parts of the mountain roads, and watch their chances topick up the sick and broken-down soldiers who would face in the rearof their command; they treated these defenseless soldiers sometimeswith a great deal of cruelty. They at times let their vile passionsrise to such a height that they put them to death. As a member of ourcompany being very feeble, dropped behind the command, as soon as ourregiment was out of sight a squad of these ruffians rushed down themountain and took him prisoner and carried him over the mountain totheir headquarters. They treated him shamefully, taking all hispersonal belongings, and threatened to hang him; they kept him forseveral days, giving him little or no food and then set him on his wayto find his way or die.These bushwhackers occasionally formed ambuscades, and when anopportunity presented itself, they would shoot down small parties ofsoldiers in the road, and then "riddle" their pockets. During oursojourn in that mountain region our rations consisted of green corn,beef and dried beans.On the first of September we passed through London en route to joinGeneral Smith. Nothing remarkable took place until we arrived atRichmond, which we reached in a few days after the battle. On thenight of the first of September we camped at Rock Castle Creek, andthe next day we crossed Big Hill, a distance of twelve miles. At thenorthern base of Big Hill is the beginning of the beautiful andwealthy portion of Kentucky. Here we quit the rough mountainous roadand traveled on a level macadamized turnpike. We were now in a levelcountry and the nice farms and magnificent residences could be seen oneither side of the road. What a great contrast between this and thatugly disagreeable mountain region which seems to have been created forfarmhands and wild Indians to inhabit. What a great contrast alsobetween its citizens and those stingy, envious, insignificantmountaineers. They were enlightened and open hearted, and many of themwere true to the Southern cause, or at least, they showed the Southernsoldiers a great deal of hospitality.The distance from Big Hill to Richmond is eighteen miles. Our companywas vanguard that day. Early in the morning that day we began to meetparoled prisoners, who had been paroled by General Smith and were onthe return to their mountain homes. Those prisoners were so numerousthat we were scarcely out of sight of them until we reached Richmond.[According to Martin's consolidated record he was captured on 8September and paroled at London, Kentucky, by a detachment of the 3rdRegiment Kentucky Volunteers under the command of Lieut. Col. J. W.Ridgell.]Our company was so far in advance of the regiment at one time weplucked ears of corn from fields and sat down on the roadside to roastthem. About the time we all began to feel as though we had eatenenough the regiment appeared in sight. We soon arrived at the placewhere the battle commenced. A scene then presented itself which wasnew to most of the regiment. Fences were taken down by the retreatingYankees to form breastworks on both sides of the long and beautifullines' rails were torn down and split to pieces with shot and shell;the earth was ploughed up in many places with lead from the rebels'guns; the residences were crowded with the wounded of both armies. Newgraves could be seen on the road side.One grave we noticed was a Yankee's as I discovered from his blueuniform; he was buried in this styled: the fence was laid down at thecorner where the rails lapped, a hole was dug the length of the man,and about one foot deep. He was laid in this hole and a little dirtthrown over him, and the fence was put up again. When we passed Isupposed he had been buried about three days. A portion of the dirthad been removed from the top of his body, and there he lay about halfexposed, and the green flies swarming around him like bees around ahive.We were kindly received by the citizens of Richmond. It was what Itermed a lovely town. The number of guns, cartridge boxes, etc.,captured at that place would have astonished anyone if the exactnumber had been known. I never saw such a pile of guns before in allof my life - some of the streets were almost full of them. Besidesthis, we were informed by citizens that the farms between Rogersvilleand Richmond had guns scattered all through them, which thepanic-stricken Yankees had thrown away while flying before theConfederate army. A citizen who witnessed the battle said, "I know onething, the rebels are not afraid of the cannon balls."Our forces had already occupied Lexington, and were marching on toFrankfort, and the people of Kentucky now for the first time duringthis great revolution had an opportunity of volunteering in theConfederate cause, for the Confederate army had never before advancedinto the interior of Kentucky. Companies were speedily formed indifferent parts of the state. Speeches were being made and Confederatebanners were floating in the breeze, and it seemed as if everyone wasflocking to our standard. Late in the afternoon we left Richmond andtraveled half the night, or later. The boys felt pretty lively, asrations of whiskey had been issued that afternoon. "It was a calmnight," and we marched by the light of the "silver shining moon."Crowds of ladies and countrymen flocked to the road, and while we werepassing they shouted at the top of their voices: "Hurrah for theGeorgia boys; while we would reply, "Hurrah for the ladies ofKentucky!" The ladies requested us to sing "Dixie." We sang "Dixie"and a few other Southern songs as we marched along.The following day we crossed the Kentucky River, which we waded andproceeded to within three miles of Lexington, and camped, as a ladyinformed us, on the premises where General John H. Morgan was born.We arose early in the morning, ate a hearty camp breakfast, loaded ourbaggage, and formed our regiment to march in the following order:Colonel Barkaloo, with a brass band at the head of his regiment,Colonel (E. P.) Watkins (commander of the regiment,) in the rear. Thusformed, we advanced with the route step slowly up the road, until wereached the suburbs of the city. Here we halted to rest, havingmarched three miles in which we passed the former residence of HenryClay, which I judged as a desirable place. In a few minutes thecommand, "Attention!" was given and every man fell into place. Wemarched by the rank flank (?) in four ranks, guns on the rightshoulder. The music now began at the head of each regiment, and thetroops moved off in cadenced step. It was like clock work - every leftfoot touched the ground at the heavy tap with their sharp bayonetsglittering in the sun at each alternate step of the drum. The brightmuskets left with as much regularity as if the soldier rocked to theright and they had been a single gun. It seemed as if every soldierwas striving to do his best. I never saw better marching in my life.General Leadbetter on his fine bay horse rode in advance of hisbrigade. All the windows and porches of the tall city buildings werecrowded with ladies and children, who were waving handkerchiefs andshouting hurrahs to us. Confederate banners were floating in thebreeze from the tops of the highest houses. Numbers of ladies andgentlemen came in from the country in buggies, carriages, and onhorseback.A lady in a carriage said to Orderly Thornton (who was a finegentleman), "We have been receiving Southern troops here for two orthree days. I have hurrahed for them until my throat is sore. I can'thurrah for you, but if you will come to me I will kiss you." Wemarched out to the fair grounds and stacked our arms.It was said to be the grandest day that had ever been in Lexington,except the day that Henry Clay was buried. It reminded one of thepicture of the entrance of the American Army into the Grand Plaza ofthe City of Mexico. While at Lexington we were visited by ladies,citizens, and countrymen, who brought apples, peaches and provisionsof all kinds and distributed them among us gratis. A little girl cameinto our camp and marched all through the encampment singing abeautiful song and she being arrayed in the banner of the bars andstars made the scene very impressive. A large lot of clothing wascaptured with the place and a great many of our brigade got themselvesfull suits of the Yankee' blue.At that time there was a force of enemy at Lebanon. Our Brigade and abrigade of Floridians left Lexington about midnight in September andtook breakfast in Nicholasville. The citizens of this place weregenerally sympathetic with the Yankees and had but very little use forthe Confederate soldiers. Traveling on we soon came to Camp DickRobinson, which was a Yankee camp of instruction. What citizens andladies we saw there expressed strong Union sentiments. Some of ourboys and the ladies had a considerable quarrel. Beyond Dick Robinsonwe again found people whose sympathies were with us. At one place acrowd of young ladies had formed and, although it was the Sabbath,they sang us a secession song to the chorus of "Root Hog or Die,"while we were passing most of the dwellings along the road.The people of Danville were divided in their sentiments, but I thinkthe majority of them were in favor of the Union. While we weremarching along the street, a cute little girl ran along the sidewalkwaving her handkerchief, and exclaiming: "Hurrah for Jeff Davis andhis men." There was a fine female college at Danville and a great manystudents were there from a distance. They collected on the sidewalk infront of the college and selected sweethearts among us, giving ustheir names and post offices, and requested us to write to them. Theyclaimed themselves to be "Southern right" girls.Leaving our camp three miles west of Danville early in the morning wetraveled all day; at night we stopped ten miles from Lebanon; hereorders came for us to proceed to Frankport, the enemy having leftLebanon and gone to Louisville. Several young ladies from Lebanon paidus a visit us that night and informed us that we would be cordiallyreceived by the citizens of Lebanon, who were making greatpreparations to give us a feast the next day. They also stated thatthe Federal soldiers had been among them a good while and expressedtheir pleasure of our having driven them away. Everyone began to whethis appetite to partake of the fine dinner, for we had eaten only acold scanty supper which had been cooked early that morning and thefollowing morning we had eaten no breakfast, as we could not get anywater to use. We were then in limestone country, and most of thesprings and branches had gone dry. We suffered a great deal for waterduring our three days march from Lexington to that place. The youngladies walked all through our camp, and took a moonlight view of us. .. . The ladies walked all around our gun stack to learn how the stackswere formed. "This is a privilege," they said "that is not allowed inthe Federal camps; they place sentinels over their guns while instacks, who will not allow anyone to go near, or touch them." TheseKentucky damsels in passing around the men, the most of whom had goneto bed, wondered very much about our mode of passing the nights incamp, that is, wrapped up in blankets and stretched at full length onthe ground. "It is a wonder that you all don't die," they said."Surely the soldiers have a harder time than anyone. If anybody in theworld needs to be pitied, it is the poor soldier." They seemed to beso deeply concerned about our welfare that I could not refrain fromadmiring them a little, although I could not tell by the moonlightwhether they were beautiful or not.At our usual hour of starting, after the night had passed, theregiments were formed. We now began to think in this manner; ten milesto Lebanon - we will arrive there about eleven o'clock; everybody willbe expecting us - a nice dinner will be on the table waiting for us -we will see a great many pretty girls and will have a fine timechatting with them; upon the whole it will be a grand jollification.To our great surprise and disappointment, when the command, "Forwardmarch!" was given we did not take the road to Lebanon, but moved offinto a different direction! We passed through Perryville that day andhalted at the Big Spring near that place to rest and cook rations.The battle at Perryville was fought between Generals Bragg and Buellin October. I shall not dwell long on the battles, in detail, as Ipresume the reader has read the history of the Civil War.Afterward, starting from the Big Spring late in the evening, wecontinued to march until we arrived in a few miles of Harrodsburg,where we halted to spend the remainder of the night. Early thefollowing morning we marched into Harrodsburg. Our entrance into thisplace was something similar to our entrance into Lexington, but Idon't deem it necessary to describe it in detail. It is sufficient tosay that we marched through the streets under the sound of music andthe cheers of the citizens. This place was called a "secession hole"by the Yanks. We were treated very kindly; a lot of pretty girls werecontinually visiting our camp.Governor Magoffin's residence was at Harrodsburg, which was noted forbeing the oldest settled town in Kentucky. General Buford was raisinga brigade of Cavalry and made a speech in the place while we werethere. We traveled from this lace, passing through El Dorado, a smalltown, and on to Salvisa, another nice little town, where the boys gotplenty of whiskey and then moved a few miles to camp.MASON DRUMMED OUT OF ARTILLERYAbout eight o'clock in the morning my attention was attracted byhearing a drum and fife playing the tune of "Yankee Doodle." I lookedup toward the upper end of the encampment and beheld a sight such as Inever saw before: a man with hair on the side of his head and whiskerson the right side of his mustache, and left side of his face shavedoff as close as could be with a razor, came marching down the roadwith his hat in his hand, and a large crowd of soldiers marchingbehind him. We learned that was Waddell's artillery men drumming oneof their men out of service for stealing a lady's gold watch.We passed through Lawrenceburg that day; also we went through a towncalled "Rough and Ready." It was a little village whose only streetwas the turnpike; one side of the street was in favor of the "Feds"and the other in favor of the South. We reached our camp, two milesfrom Frankfort that evening.VISIT TO FRANKFORT, KENTUCKYOn the 15th of September a number of officers and soldiers spent a dayat Frankport. We visited the prison and found two hundred and fiftyconvicts in prison, one hundred and fifty of whom were in favor of theNorth, and the remaining hundred in favor of the South; they weredressed in striped clothing, made so the stripes ran around them incircles. We also visited the city cemetery, which is situated on thesummit of a high hill. Here were monuments of numerous officers whofell in the Mexican War; also the monument of Daniel and RebeccaBoone.(According to his consolidated record, Martin appears on a register ofPrisoners of War at Cincinatti, Ohio, captured in Kentucky andexchanged at Cumberland Gap, Tennessee, on 16 September 1862, byGeneral Morgan "Cincinatti, Ohio, Register No. 1, page 56". His namealso appears on a list of Confederate officers and soldiers exchangedat Cumberland Gap on 16 September 1862, as well as on a list ofConfederate officer and soldier prisoners of war exchanged atCumberland Gap on 17 September 1862.)These people of Frankfort and vicinity were generally Lincolnites, andbut very few of them would take Southern money; small boys in thestreet would shout, "Hurrah for Lincoln," and sing abolition songs.The country surrounding Frankport is called the blue-grass country andit is well adapted to the raising of fine horses and cattle.We visited a great many houses whose inhabitants told us plainly thatthey were against us, but they would generally give us something toeat, saying at the same time that they treated both sides well. Weboys had been soldiering long enough to take little things that wewanted as we came to them, especially in the eating line. It was whatour boys termed "pressing," the Yankees termed it "jay-hawking," butin times of peace we would call it "stealing." We were in what weconsidered about halfway the enemy's country, and the vineyards andwatermelon patches were pretty regularly visited.DEATH OF OLD MAN POLKA very sad accident happened while we camped near Frankport. An oldgentleman named Polk, who was a very strong Southern rights man, livednear our encampment; one day he proposed for some of us to go fishingwith him, and he would teach us to how to catch fish, as he had goodseine. Accordingly he, with several officers, proceeded to the river.After being in the water for some time and having made several hauls,Mr. Polk being in deep water became frightened. His companions becameexcited, swam to the bank and left Mr. Polk who struggled and drownedbefore help reached him. The shrieks and cries from his little boyswho were standing on the bank were enough to touch anyone's feelings.He was a poor man, and had two lovely daughters whom several of theboys were trying to claim as sweethearts but the sudden and unexpecteddeath of their father caused them to lay off their gay dresses and puton those of mourning.Leaving Frankport on September 19th we reached Georgetown on thefollowing day. We camped on the spot where the Yankees were camped fora short time previously. While there a large body of troops under thecommand of General Heth, came marching from Covington, which issituated on the Kentucky side of the Ohio River, just oppositeCincinatti, well fortified, and occupied by Federal troops.General Heth marched his men to within a short distance of the enemy'sbreastworks and finding them to be very formidable, he abandoned theidea of attacking them. A great many of General Heth's troops werefrom Texas and Arkansas. We saw several regiments whose colors werevery much soiled and torn, and in large capital letters bore thisinscription, "SHILOH." I judged from that that they had fought in theBattle of Shiloh. They fought also in the Battle of Richmond,Kentucky. They had been in service a long time, and being such a greatdistance from home some of them looked very ragged and dirty, andwhile some of the Yankees were making their escape after the Battle ofRichmond, a citizen asked them, "How did the battle go?" and theyreplied, "Those greasy Southern boys came very near eating us up." Wedid not suffer any for water at Georgetown as there is a spring atthat place which is so large that the stream that runs from it is acreek of sufficient size to run a mile.SOLDIERS PUNISHEDWe were camped in an old field, and about one hundred yards from thefence one morning I saw five soldiers all marching one behind theother in single file, each one having a very large stone on hisshoulder. They marched up to the fence and back to the encampmentagain, and continued marching in this style for two hours. They had todo every alternate two hours for about two days. It was punishmentinflicted by their captain; three of them had been stealing, one hadgot drunk and one had visited the country without permission.On September 24th the entire army set out for Mt. Sterling, passingthrough New Town, Centerville and camping at Paris, which is a townsituated along the railroad eighteen miles from Georgetown.On the following day, we passed through Middletown, and arrived atcamp two miles from Mt. Sterling, where we formed a junction withGeneral Humphrey Marshall who had just arrived from across themountains from Western Virginia. Our object was to fight GeneralMorgan, who was making his way out of the Cumberland Gap. GeneralMorgan gave the dodge, however, and went out through the mountains bythe way of Trouton, and crossed over into Ohio.Out of Paris, about six miles in Bourbon County, Kentucky, one of ourofficers was sitting down to rest by the side of a gate near where twowhite citizens were standing, and a lady with a bucket of milk wasgiving one cupful to each soldier. The soldiers were crowding aroundher. A very tall soldier who had just drank his cupful as could beplainly seen by looking at the appearance of his long mustache, saidto the lady, "Fill my cup, as I haven't had any." Looking him straightin the face, she explained, "Oh, you are trying to cheat me, yourmustache had told on you." Our troops were then passing regiment byregiment for we had at the time, a large army. I heard a citizenremark, "The rebellion is large, but is bound to swell still larger."By September 29th we were near Mt. Sterling. We started on the returnto Frankfort and advanced as far as Paris. From Georgetown we marchedback to Frankfort. On October 1st there was a grand display inFrankfort. R. Hawes, Military governor appointed by Confederateauthorities, was inaugurated. General Reynolds' brigade escorted himto the capitol by forming a military procession and accompanying himthrough the streets; heavy salutes were also fired by our artillery.Unfortunately for us, Governor Hawes' administration was very short,for the enemy appeared in large force on the opposite side of theriver late that evening, and our generals believing our force was notsufficient to contend with the enemy successfully, burned the bridgesacross the river and started to form a junction with General Bragg,who at that time had a considerable army in Kentucky. As we marchedalong that night we went by General Raines brigade which had largefires that were built out of rails that they had taken off thedifferent fences of a farm near the road. We stopped at Versailles forawhile.Late the next afternoon we stacked arms on the banks of the KentuckyRiver and took supper, which besides our usual fare, consisted ofpumpkin and kershaws which our boys had taken from an adjoining field.After supper was over we took up the line of march and hurried on toSalvisa. Our company was rear guard for the brigade that night.KENTUCKY(Most of a general, two-paragraph description of Kentucky is omitted.)Walnut groves were very numerous and our boys ate so many walnuts theyobtained the name "Walnut Rangers." . . . Kentucky was very thicklysettled, and we sometimes marched a whole day in a lane, the fences ofwhich were built of stone.At Salvisa, water was so scarce and inconvenient, that ourquartermaster hauled it in at noon. On October 7th we started in thedirection of Versailles. The weather was pleasant and the moonshinebright at night. We crossed the Kentucky River and continued the marchuntil nine o'clock, when we stacked arms and lay down and rested untildaylight. On the following morning we moved to within one mile ofVersailles, and stopped to cook provisions. Having but few cookingutensils, and being limited to time, we were compelled to cook onboards; our water was taken out of a pond which was muddy and thicklymingled with green moss, warm and very "bad tasting." We cookedbiscuits only, having no meat, etc. The bread was not very good, as itwas just flour kneaded with pond water and salt, without any lard orbaking soda.At Versailles we took Harrodsburg Road and re-crossed the KentuckyRiver that night, which we had to wade; and later lay down to sleepawhile one mile beyond. We arose again and proceeded to within twomiles of Lawrenceburg and halted until day.We were planning an attack on that place early that morning but theenemy left town before we reached it. Our cavalry captured about onehundred stragglers who were left behind, most of whom wereintoxicated. We pursued the enemy until 12 o'clock, crossed Salt Riverand abandoned the pursuit. Although our cavalry continued and capturedduring the day about five hundred of the enemy and a number of wagonsloaded with commissary stores, we had been marching all day withoutanything to eat, as we ate the last of our rations for breakfast, andnot having quite enough we finished that meal by eating green pumpkinswhich we had roasted on the coals. At Salt River we filed left andcontinued the march, until night, in a road that led into theHarrodsburg Turnpike, near which we took up lodging, as we thought forthe night. One small piece of bacon and three small sugar crackers ofthose which were captured during the day, were issued to each man.About two o'clock (this was the morning of October 10th) we arose andbegan our march for Harrodsburg, resting that day several hours at ElDorado, during which time the boys ate all the cabbage that wasgrowing in the gardens nearby, stripped an orchard of most of itsapples, ate the contents of a potato patch, and as many walnuts asthey wanted, these lasting them to Harrodsburg, which place we reachedthat evening and advanced one mile southwest of the town on thePerryville Turnpike, and camped near where General Braggs army wasstanding face to face with the enemy. We got full rations of bacon andflour. The night was dark, drizzly and cool. All rails on thesurrounding fences were burned that night, as we kept large firesuntil morning. We were then in sight of General Braggs army which layin a line of battle, while the enemy, under General Buell, was in aline of battle one mile beyond.The next day the drum "beat" early, which warned us to "fall in." Themen soon formed in two ranks behind the stack of guns. Almost everyonethought that in a short time he would be out on the line of battle,ready to "pitch into" his enemy, just a short distance beyond. ColonelWatkins mounted his nice roan animal, which he called "SallyMcGrundy," appeared in front of his regiment, after giving thecommands preparatory to starting, gave the command, "Forward march."Instead of marching toward the line of battle, we marched back throughHarrodsburg, and camped that night a few miles from Camp DickRobinson. Here we began to prepare to leave the state. It is said thatthe enemy, whose force at that time was very large, had us almostsurrounded, having us hemmed in the shape of a horseshoe. All thecaptains tore up their tents to make haversacks for the men to carryrations in.Our departure from Kentucky was on the 13th of October. Late in theevening our whole army was put in motion, and soon found itself atCamp Dick Robinson. Here were hundreds of pounds of pickled pork,which our regiment anticipated destroying to prevent it from fasllinginto the hands of the enemy. Consequently every soldier was ordered totake as much was he was willing to carry. Most everyone took a piecewhich he carried on his bayonet. We traveled all night withoutsleeping any. Just a short time before day we approached to within afew miles of Lancaster where we expected to have an engagement withthe enemy. We passed through Lancaster about sunrise. We failed to seeany Yanks, but we learned that a large number of them, under GeneralBuell, had passed through there during the night. The enemy went toCrab Orchard, and we went toward Big Hill, reaching it about noon thenext day.At 4 o'clock on the morning of October 18th, we started again,traveling all day and about eight o'clock that night we started intoan old field (or in other words a brier patch) to camp. One cup ofsalt to the company, and some beef, were then issued but we had nobread; corn was just ripe enough to grate well, and most of the boys,knowing our situation in the commissary line, entered some fields nearthe road and filled their haversacks. Some punched holes in the bottomof their tin cups and grated meal for supper, while others ate parchedcorn and beef.Water was extremely scarce. Some dipped a few cupsful of water fromthe horses tracks. Our men began to suffer with hunger, havingsubsisted since the thirteenth principally on parched corn, whilecabbage patches, orchards, and Chinese sugar cane were shown noquarter by our army.LAD WHIPPED FOR STEALING HORSEDuring our march that day, we saw a lad about sixteen years of agesitting by the side of the road, and a crowd of soldiers standing by,one of whom was shaving the hair off one side of the boy's head asclose as it could be done with shears. Upon interrogating the crowd,we soon found that the lad was a member of General Duford's "KentuckyCavalry," and had stolen a horse from a lieutenant of CaptainWaddell's artillery. Those who had the young man in custody, all ofwhom were members of Waddell's artillery, informed us that they werenot prepared to drum him out of service as there were no musicianspresent, but in lieu thereof they intended to put the lash on hisback.On October 20th we stacked arms at 2 o'clock in the evening, along theCumberland River two miles from Flat Lick and five miles fromCumberland Ford in Knox County, Kentucky. A mill stood in front of ourgun stacks, and in a field on the opposite side of the river was aquantity of thrashed wheat which was not well fanned. Our Colonel sentafter the wheat, pressed the mill and started it to grinding. The millran all night and by morning enough was ground to give the regiment ascanty meal. We took a small quantity of the flour in tin cups,kneaded it and baked it on an iron for our supper. A portion of theflour was bran and chaff. Beef was issued that night without any salt.The next day we moved one mile south of Cumberland Ford and halted tocamp. About ten o'clock at night a small portion of bread was given toeach man. No wood being handy, we lay down, each man having oneblanket, but we could not keep warm as the night was very cool.On the following day we traveled sixteen miles. We passed CumberlandGap and camped five miles south of it on the bank of Powell's River.During our march we saw between the "ford" and the "gap" the distanceof which is about twelve miles, twenty-seven dead horses and mules.At Cumberland Gap we examined the Yankee camps which stood at the footof the mountain on the north side. A great many paroled convalescentswere in them. It was said that General Morgan, previous to hisdeparture from that place, had dug holes in the shape of graves andhad his artillery placed in them, covered over, and pieces of plankplaced at each end, by which we suppose them to be graves. At the footof the mountain, on the south side, was a mill built in a few steps ofa spring which was so large that its branches kept the mill running.From the top of the mountain, the country is visible for many milesaround. There one can get a glance at what we termed "beautifulmountain scenery." A few paces from the very summit, on the southside, stands the corner stone of three states, Kentucky, Virginia andTennessee. As we stepped over the line into Tennessee, and felt thecool soft and pleasant breeze of "Dixie," Oscar Alexander Cantrelldeclared that it called to mind the reading of that chapter in theHoly Bible, which tells about the children of Israel crossing the RedSea after which they sat down and sang and played on their musicalinstruments; and I do believe at the time music would have been thesweetest sound in the world to me. Thus ended our campaign inKentucky.MOVEMENTS IN TENNESSEEOn October 23, at Powell's River we drew full rations, and started forTazewell, which we reached about ten o'clock. Here we caught up withour wagons which had been in advance of us during our march out ofKentucky.Early the following morning we left Tazewell and traveled in thedirection of Knoxville. We waded Clinch River and pitched our camp ona hill five miles south of it. We reached Blanes Cross Roads the nextday, where we remained as it was snowing very much and we were withouttents. We kept large fires out of rails which we had packed on ourshoulders. On October 28th, General Ledbetter started to Mobile,Alabama, to take charge of the forts near the city, and ColonelSkidmore Harris of the Forty-Third Georgia Regiment, being the rankingcolonel, took command and conducted us to Lenoir's Station which issituated on the East Tennessee and Georgia Railroad. Here we got ourtents and cooking utensils again. The following morning one officerfrom each company, the most of whom were captains, started home toGeorgia on detail to get winter clothing for the regiment.While we were at this place six regiments were formed under onebrigade. We remained at Lenoir's Station for eighteen day, and duringthat time there was a great deal of sickness. From two to threesoldiers were buried there every day of our stay An old miller livingnear our camp was grinding one day and said to some of our boys whowere standing at the mill, "Soldiers are great rogues, but they arenot 'sharp' enough to steal from me." That evening the boys made araid, and when they came in they produced a sack of meal and the oldman's coat buttons. The old man was, no doubt, a "Union skunk" and hadhe held his tongue he would probably not have lost his buttons andmeal.On November 17, we took the cars for Tullahoma, TN, then proceeded toManchester, TN, where we established our camp on Duck River. OnDecember 7, we received orders to proceed immediately to Readyville.We traveled only a short distance the first day as the weather wasvery cold, and the ground covered with snow. At night we slepttolerably comfortable considering that we had to lay on snow which wepartially covered with broom sedge.On December 9, we arrived and established our camp two miles east ofReadyville. Here we drilled regularly - a company drill in theafternoon every day and battalion and brigade drill every alternateafternoon.OUR TRIP FROM TENNESSEE TO MISSOURIOrders came for our division, which was commanded by General C. L.Stephenson, to proceed immediately to Jackson, MS. Accordingly westarted on the 20th day of December and camped that night two milesfrom Murfreesboro; passed through Murfreesboro the next day and campedtwo miles down the road in a cedar grove. At dawn of the day theregiment got aboard the cars near Murfeesboro, and we arrived inChattanooga at sunset. Here we spent Christmas, and during the day ourboys worked a nice Christmas trick on one of the citizens who had justkilled a large lot of hogs and brought in a load of backbones to sellto the soldiers. The trick was this: The boys surrounded the wagon asthough they were going to buy all he had. While some were talking withthe old gentleman, asking the prices and occasionally buying one, ortwo, the others were handing them out to the comrades behind, who werecarrying them off. The old man's backbones were disappearing sorapidly, and the money coming in so slow, he took the hint and laidthe whip to his horses, not before the boys had jay-hawked backbonesenough to last for several days. I may add, too right here, that thisjay-hawking was done in the absence of officials and was verycarefully kept from their ears. The boys managed that trick so well,they concluded to try again. Orders were very strict then againstanyone selling whiskey to a soldier. A citizen informed one of theboys that he had a canteen of whiskey, and that he would let him haveit for eight dollars. His reply was, "A trade, as soon as I step andget my canteen." While the citizen was getting the canteen, thesoldier whispered to some of his comrades, "Watch me, and when you seehim emptying the whiskey in my canteen rush up with your guns and takehim prisoner." At last when the man returned with the whiskey one ofthe soldiers addressed him in a severe manner, "What have you got inthat canteen?" The man replied, "water." "Let me see," said thesoldier, at the same time pulling out the stopper and placing his noseto the mouth of the canteen. "Water, oh! Bring him down toheadquarters, boys!" The citizen fearing they would arrest him forselling the whiskey, ran off without his eight gallons, and probablythought he had escaped without being arrested. The boys proceeded tothe camp, stacked arms, and had a fine time drinking and laughing overtheir cleverness. A soldier who witnessed these two tricks, seeingthat they were well managed concluded to try his luck. An old ladycame up with a bucket of pies, and while she was telling the prices,the soldier slipped a pie out of the basket. The old lady havingwatched somewhat closer than he anticipated, lifted his hat from hishead, remarking at the same time: "A fair exchange is no openrobbery." The boys who were crowded around began to laugh at thesoldier, who saw he was caught, laid the pie in the basket, and theold lady returned his hat.On Christmas night Lieutenant Slaughter pressed the passenger trainand the next morning found us in Atlanta. In a few hours we steppedinto the cars again which soon began to roll toward the west. Orderswere issued, prior to our departure from Tennessee, that no leave orabsence or furlough would be granted while en route to Mississippi.Good officers and soldiers never disobey orders, but the temptationwas so great that many of our boys were missing in every company.During the day they leaped off their cars to take what they termed aFrench furlough; the majority of them returned to their commands,however, in a short time. It was Christmas times and during the daysome of the boys had taken a little more than the average supply ofwhiskey, which caused them to be a bit thirsty. The train halted for afew minutes, and they called to a Negro who was standing near the carto bring them water quick! The Negro ran and in the shortest possibletime imaginable handed a bucket into the car. One of boys began todrink out of the bucket. The whistle blew and the train began to moveoff slowly. The Negro ran along keeping up with the train until itbegan running at full speed, exclaiming, "Master, please gim me debucket! Master, please gim me de bucket!" The last we saw of the Negrohe was running at full speed, exclaiming, "Master, please gim me debucket!" The last the Negro saw of the bucket, the thirsty soldier wasstanding with it almost bottom side up, in the door of the cardrinking as though he didn't intend to cease until he had swallowedits contents.We reached West Point about 9 o'clock that night and remained thereone day in order to cook our rations. Our tents were situated on alevel spot near one of the hotels. While the boys were passing intothe hotel yard to get water, they discovered in the cook house a largequantity of sweet potatoes piled up to the sill of a back window. Twoof the boys agreed to pay them a visit that night. Accordingly aboutten o'clock the boys approached the window and found one of the lowerpanes of glass was broken out - the moon was shining bright. The cookswere sitting by the fire, which was but a few paces from the window,busily engaged in conversation. The boys arms being too short to reachthe potatoes, they sharpened the end of sticks which they thrust intothe potatoes, and by this means soon drew out enough to fill theirsacks, which held about two bushels. Before we reached West Point thetrain stopped and two Negroes came up the car offering potatoes forsale. One of the boys lifted the sack into the car and began todistribute them to his comrades, who were gathered around him. One ofthe Negroes said, "Master, ain't you gwine to pay me for the taters?'The soldier pointed his gun toward the Negro and told him if he didn't"skedaddle" he would shoot him. The Negro ran off about ten paces andsaid, "Mister, if you won't pay me for de taters, gim me de sack."About that time the gun fired and the Negroes leaped behind a tree.Another soldier held up his gun and fired at the top of the tree. TheNegroes then began running, leaping over logs, rocks, sticks andbushes. The boys only intended to have some fun out of them and thenpay them for the potatoes, but the Negroes understood the joke to bestrictly sincere.We finally reached Montgomery where we boarded the steamer, "R. B.Taney." We traveled down the Alabama River and landed at Selma wherewe took the train at 2 o'clock, and on December 13 rolled intoDemopolis. Down the street we could see it crowded with beautifulwomen, and a short distance beyond them we saw a long table under arow of beautiful trees which stood along the sidewalk. Provisionscooked in the best style were soon placed on the tables and the wholecar load of soldiers, consisting of two regiments, were invited todinner. We marched up one side of the table, while the ladies stood onthe other side and waited upon us with the greatest pleasure andpoliteness. We were informed that they had been feeding soldiers sevendays and had provisions enough to feed them seven more days, and ifthe soldiers continued passing through, they intended to feed them aslong as Demopolis could furnish a pound of meat or a loaf of bread.These ladies of Demopolis have praise of being kind, beautiful andpatriotic. They also had the thanks and best wishes of every soldierin General Stevenson'sdivision. I can say that Demopolis is a lovely little town, situatedon the eastern bank of the Tombigby River in Morengo County, AlabamaAt sunset we started down the Tombigby River on the steamer "Marengo."A LAD WHIPPED AND DRUMMED OUT OF SERVICEWe got ashore at McDowell's landing early on the morning of January 1,1863. On the preceding night Captain Rowland placed his boots near hishead when he retired. When he arose the boots were missing, Bysearching around in his bare feet, he found them, together with otherarticles which were missing from the regiment, in the possession of ayoung lad names Rataree, who already bore the reputation of being aconsiderable rogue. For punishment his shirt was taken off and onehundred and one stripes placed on his bare back, the hair shaved offone side of his head, marched through the encampment in advance of alarge crowd of soldiers who followed close behind under sound of thetune called the "Rogue's March," with his hat in his hand. When thiswas done he was considered fully discharged.FIFTY-SIXTH REGIMENT IN MISSISSIPPIAt nine o'clock on the night of January 1, the whistle blew and thecars stopped in Meridan, Mississippi. The Fifty-Sixth Georgia Regimenttook off its baggage and reposed in the streets until morning.The country had a rather unfavorable appearance - the surface beingrather flat; though the timber was fine and in some places the landwas inclined to be swampy.The cars bore us from Meriden to Jackson where we were later orderedto Vicksburg. We found everything selling at high figures atVicksburg: biscuits from one to two dollars a dozen, chickens twodollars each, eggs two dollars per dozen, butter two dollars perpound, milk two dollars per gallon, shoes fifteen dollars per pair, ameal of victuals two dollars, etc.We were ordered to Big Black River, thirteen, miles distant to guardthe railroad bridge; returning to Vicksburg the seventh of February.Rations were issued to us and consisted of beef of the poorestquality, the coarsest corn meal, black molasses, peas, and sugar.(Martin must have had a trip home around this time, probably duringFebruary, because his fifth child James M. was born the followingNovember.)Every ten days our regiment was sent to Warrenton, a small place tenmiles down the river, on picket duty, which duty is very disagreeable,being performed thus: We had to rise very early in the morning, theweather being very cool, walk ten miles over a muddy road, and arriveat the picket post about eleven o'clock. Our diet consisted of coldbeef and corn bread, cooked previous to leaving our camps; in two dayswe would return. We remained on picket two days and nights, notregarding the condition of the weather. Our only bed was one blanket.One night every week we slept in the streets of Vicksburg. This dutywe performed until the third day of April when we moved our camp tothe upper end of the fortifications, near Chickasaw bayou.When the gunboat "Indianola" was captured, we found among its crewthree soldiers who had formerly belonged to our army, but had desertedand gone to the Yankees about twelve months prior to their capture. Acourt martial was held and they were sentenced to be shot. GeneralStevenson's division was ordered to execute the sentence on one ofthem. It was a solemn duty. About ten o'clock in the morning thedivision formed and marched about one mile south of the city andformed on three sides of a hollow square; at the center of the gapwhere the fourth side would have been had the square been completed,stood a stake which the deserter was tied to; just behind the stakewas his casket and grave. At the center of the square stood twelve menwith loaded guns, six of which were loaded with blank cartridges. Thecommands, "Ready, aim, fire," were given and the unfortunate men wereno more.Return to Gary Foster's Haggard Home Page Historical FilesReturn to Surnames.com <http://Surnames.com \ _blank> Home Page
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Over de familienaam Kittrell

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Historische gebeurtenissen


  • De temperatuur op 25 december 1809 lag rond de 5,0 °C. De wind kwam overheersend uit het west-zuid-westen. Typering van het weer: betrokken regen. Bron: KNMI
  • De Republiek der Verenigde Nederlanden werd in 1794-1795 door de Fransen veroverd onder leiding van bevelhebber Charles Pichegru (geholpen door de Nederlander Herman Willem Daendels); de verovering werd vergemakkelijkt door het dichtvriezen van de Waterlinie; Willem V moest op 18 januari 1795 uitwijken naar Engeland (en van daaruit in 1801 naar Duitsland); de patriotten namen de macht over van de aristocratische regenten en proclameerden de Bataafsche Republiek; op 16 mei 1795 werd het Haags Verdrag gesloten, waarmee ons land een vazalstaat werd van Frankrijk; in 3.1796 kwam er een Nationale Vergadering; in 1798 pleegde Daendels een staatsgreep, die de unitarissen aan de macht bracht; er kwam een nieuwe grondwet, die een Vertegenwoordigend Lichaam (met een Eerste en Tweede Kamer) instelde en als regering een Directoire; in 1799 sloeg Daendels bij Castricum een Brits-Russische invasie af; in 1801 kwam er een nieuwe grondwet; bij de Vrede van Amiens (1802) kreeg ons land van Engeland zijn koloniën terug (behalve Ceylon); na de grondwetswijziging van 1805 kwam er een raadpensionaris als eenhoofdig gezag, namelijk Rutger Jan Schimmelpenninck (van 31 oktober 1761 tot 25 maart 1825).
  • In het jaar 1809: Bron: Wikipedia
    • 4 maart » James Madison wordt beëdigd als 4de president van de Verenigde Staten.
    • 18 april » Tilburg verkrijgt stadsrechten van toenmalig koning Lodewijk Napoleon Bonaparte, vorst van het koninkrijk Holland.
    • 13 mei » Napoleon Bonaparte trekt in de Vijfde Coalitieoorlog opnieuw Wenen binnen.
    • 16 augustus » Op initiatief van Wilhelm von Humboldt wordt in Berlijn een nieuwe universiteit opgericht, de huidige Humboldt-Universität.
    • 7 september » Vrede van Fredrikshamn: einde Finse Oorlog tussen Zweden en Rusland.

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