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Ancêtres (et descendants) de Louis of the Franks

Famille de Louis "the Pious" of the Franks (master record)


Il est marié avec Ermengarde of Hesbaye.

en l'an 794 à Bavaria, Germany, il avait 15 ans.


  1. Rotrude Of Aquitaine  800-???? 
  2. Lothair I Of Bavaria  795-855 
  3. Pepin I. Of Aquitaine  797-838 
  4. Adelaide of the Franks  799-????
  5. Hildegard (or Matilda) of the Franks  802-????
  6. Louis of the Franks  806-876

(2) Il avait une relation avec Theodelinde of Sens.


  1. Alpais or Alpheidis of Paris  ± 795-852 

(3) Il avait une relation avec Judith Of Bavaria.


  1. Gisela of the Franks   
  2. Charles II of the Franks  823-877 

Notes par Louis "the Pious" of the Franks (master record)

Louis the Pious (778 – 20 June 840), also calledthe Fair, and the Debonaire,[1] was the King of Aquitaine from 781.He was also King of the Franks and co-Emperor (as Louis I) with hisfather, Charlemagne, from 813. As the only surviving adult son ofCharlemagne, he became the sole ruler of the Franks after hisfather's death in 814, a position which he held until his death, savefor the period 833–34, during which he was deposed.
During hisreign in Aquitaine, Louis was charged with the defence of theEmpire's southwestern frontier. He reconquered Barcelona from theMuslims in 801 and re-asserted Frankish authority over Pamplona andthe Basques south of the Pyrenees in 813.
As emperor he includedhis adult sons—Lothair, Pepin, and Louis—in the government andsought to establish a suitable division of the realm between them.The first decade of his reign was characterised by several tragediesand embarrassments, notably the brutal treatment of his nephewBernard of Italy, for which Louis atoned in a public act ofself-debasement.
In the 830s his empire was torn by civil warbetween his sons, only exacerbated by Louis's attempts to include hisson Charles by his second wife in the succession plans.
Thoughhis reign ended on a high note, with order largely restored to hisempire, it was followed by three years of civil war. Louis isgenerally compared unfavourably to his father, though the problems hefaced were of a distinctly different sort.
Birth and rule inAquitaine
Louis was born while his father Charlemagne was oncampaign in Spain, at the Carolingian villa of Cassinogilum,according to Einhard and the anonymous chronicler called Astronomus;the place is usually identified with Chasseneuil, near Poitiers.[2]He was the third son of Charlemagne by his wife Hildegard.
Louiswas crowned king of Aquitaine as a child in 781 and sent there withregents and a court. Charlemagne constituted the sub-kingdom in orderto secure the border of his kingdom after his devastating defeat atthe hands of Basques in Roncesvalles in (778).
In 794, Charlemagnesettled four former Gallo-Roman villas on Louis, in the thought thathe would take in each in turn as winter residence: Doué-la-Fontainein today's Anjou, Ebreuil in Allier, Angeac-Charente, and thedisputed Cassinogilum.
Charlemagne's intention was to see all hissons brought up as natives of their given territories, wearing thenational costume of the region and ruling by the local customs. Thuswere the children sent to their respective realms at so young an age.
Each kingdom had its importance in keeping some frontier, Louis'swas the Spanish March. In 797, Barcelona, the greatest city of theMarca, fell to the Franks when Zeid, its governor, rebelled againstCórdoba and, failing, handed it to them. The Umayyad authorityrecaptured it in 799. However, Louis marched the entire army of hiskingdom, including Gascons with their duke Sancho I of Gascony,Provençals under Leibulf, and Goths under Bera, over the Pyreneesand besieged it for two years, wintering there from 800 to 801, whenit capitulated.
The sons were not given independence from centralauthority, however, and Charlemagne ingrained in them the concepts ofempire and unity by sending them on military expeditions far fromtheir home bases. Louis campaigned in the Italian Mezzogiorno againstthe Beneventans at least once.
Louis was one of Charlemagne'sthree legitimate sons to survive infancy, and, according to Frankishcustom, Louis had expected to share his inheritance with hisbrothers, Charles the Younger, King of Neustria, and Pepin, King ofItaly. In the Divisio Regnorum of 806, Charlemagne had slated Charlesthe Younger as his successor as emperor and chief king, ruling overthe Frankish heartland of Neustria and Austrasia, while giving Pepinthe Iron Crown of Lombardy, which Charlemagne possessed by conquest.To Louis's kingdom of Aquitaine, he added Septimania, Provence, andpart of Burgundy.
But in the event, Charlemagne's other legitimatesons died — Pepin in 810 and Charles in 811 — and Louis aloneremained to be crowned co-emperor with Charlemagne in 813. On hisfather's death in 814, he inherited the entire Frankish kingdom andall its possessions (with the sole exception of Italy, which remainedwithin Louis's empire, but under the direct rule of Bernard, Pepin'sson).
He was in his villa of Doué-la-Fontaine, Anjou,when he received news of his father's passing. Hurrying to Aachen, hecrowned himself and was proclaimed by the nobles with shouts of VivatImperator Ludovicus.
In his first coinage type, minted from thestart of his reign, he imitated his father Charlemagne's portraitcoinage, giving an image of imperial power and prestige in an echo ofRoman glory.[3]
He quickly enacted a "moral purge", inwhich he sent all of his unmarried sisters to nunneries, forgoingtheir diplomatic use as hostage brides in favour of the security ofavoiding the entanglements that powerful brothers-in-law might bring.He spared his illegitimate half-brothers and tonsured his father'scousins, Adalard and Wala, shutting them up in Noirmoutier andCorbie, respectively, despite the latter's initial loyalty.
Hischief counsellors were Bernard, margrave of Septimania, and Ebbo,Archbishop of Reims. The latter, born a serf, was raised by Louis tothat office, but ungratefully betrayed him later. He retained some ofhis father's ministers, such as Elisachar, abbot of St. Maximin nearTrier, and Hildebold, Archbishop of Cologne. Later he replacedElisachar with Hildwin, abbot of many monasteries.
He alsoemployed Benedict of Aniane (the Second Benedict), a SeptimanianVisigoth and monastic founder, to help him reform the Frankishchurch. One of Benedict's primary reforms was to ensure that allreligious houses in Louis' realm adhered to the Rule of SaintBenedict, named for its creator, Benedict of Nursia (480–550), theFirst Benedict. In 816, Pope Stephen IV, who had succeeded Leo III,visited Reims and again crowned Louis. The Emperor therebystrengthened the papacy by recognising the importance of the pope inimperial coronations.
Ordinatio imperii
On Maundy Thursday 817,Louis and his court were crossing a wooden gallery from the cathedralto the palace in Aachen when the gallery collapsed, killing many.Louis, having barely survived and feeling the imminent danger ofdeath, began planning for his succession; three months later heissued an Ordinatio Imperii, an imperial decree that laid out plansfor an orderly succession. In 815, he had already given his twoeldest sons a share in the government, when he had sent his eldersons Lothair and Pepin to govern Bavaria and Aquitaine respectively,though without the royal titles. Now, he proceeded to divide theempire among his three sons and his nephew Bernard of Italy:
Lothairwas proclaimed and crowned co-emperor in Aix-la-Chapelle by hisfather. He was promised the succession to most of the Frankishdominions (excluding the exceptions below), and would be the overlordof his brothers and cousin. Bernard, the son of Charlemagne's sonPippin of Italy, was confirmed as King of Italy, a title he had beenallowed to inherit from his father by Charlemagne.
Pepin wasproclaimed King of Aquitaine, his territory including Gascony, themarch around Toulouse, and the counties of Carcassonne, Autun,Avallon and Nevers. Louis, the youngest son, was proclaimed King ofBavaria and the neighbouring marches.
If one of the subordinatekings died, he was to be succeeded by his sons. If he died childless,Lothair would inherit his kingdom. In the event of Lothair dyingwithout sons, one of Louis the Pious' younger sons would be chosen toreplace him by "the people".
Above all, the Empirewould not be divided: the Emperor would rule supreme over thesubordinate kings, whose obedience to him was mandatory.
With thissettlement, Louis tried to combine his sense for the Empire's unity,supported by the clergy, while at the same time providing positionsfor all of his sons. Instead of treating his sons equally in statusand land, he elevated his first-born son Lothair above his youngerbrothers and gave him the largest part of the Empire as hisshare.
Bernard's rebellion and Louis's penance
The ordinatioimperii of Aachen left Bernard of Italy in an uncertain andsubordinate position as king of Italy, and he began plotting todeclare independence upon hearing of it. Louis immediately directedhis army towards Italy, and betook himself to Chalon-sur-Saône.
Intimidated by the emperor's swift action, Bernard met his uncleat Chalon, under invitation, and surrendered. He was taken toAix-la-Chapelle by Louis, who there had him tried and condemned todeath for treason. Louis had the sentence commuted to blinding, whichwas duly carried out; Bernard did not survive the ordeal, however,dying after two days of agony.
Others also suffered: Theodulf ofOrléans, in eclipse since the death of Charlemagne, was accused ofhaving supported the rebellion, and was thrown into a monasticprison, where he died soon after - poisoned, it was rumoured.[4]
Thefate of his nephew deeply marked Louis's conscience for the rest ofhis life.
In 822, as a deeply religious man, Louis performedpenance for causing Bernard's death, at his palace of Attigny nearVouziers in the Ardennes, before Pope Paschal I, and a council ofecclesiastics and nobles of the realm that had been convened for thereconciliation of Louis with his three younger half-brothers, Hugowhom he soon made abbot of St-Quentin, Drogo whom he soon made Bishopof Metz, and Theodoric.
This act of contrition, partly inemulation of Theodosius I, had the effect of greatly reducing hisprestige as a Frankish ruler, for he also recited a list of minoroffences about which no secular ruler of the time would have takenany notice. He also made the egregious error of releasing Wala andAdalard from their monastic confinements, placing the former in aposition of power in the court of Lothair and the latter in aposition in his own house.
Frontier wars
At the start ofLouis's reign, the many tribes — Danes, Obotrites, Slovenes,Bretons, Basques — which inhabited his frontierlands were still inawe of the Frankish emperor's power and dared not stir up anytrouble.
In 816, however, the Sorbs rebelled and were quicklyfollowed by Slavomir, chief of the Obotrites, who was captured andabandoned by his own people, being replaced by Ceadrag in 818. Soon,Ceadrag too had turned against the Franks and allied with the Danes,who were to become the greatest menace of the Franks in a shorttime.
A greater Slavic menace was gathering on the southeast.There, Ljudevit Posavski, duke of Pannonia, was harassing the borderat the Drava and Sava rivers. The margrave of Friuli, Cadolah, wassent out against him, but he died on campaign and, in 820, hismargarvate was invaded by Slovenes.
In 821, an alliance was madewith Borna, duke of the Dalmatia, and Ljudevit was brought to heel.In 824 several Slav tribes in the north-western parts of Bulgariaacknowledged Louis's suzerainity and after he was reluctant to settlethe matter peacefully with the Bulgarian ruler Omurtag, in 827 theBulgarians attacked the Franks in Pannonia and regained theirlands.
On the far southern edge of his great realm, Louis had tocontrol the Lombard princes of Benevento whom Charlemagne had neversubjugated. He extracted promises from Princes Grimoald IV and Sico,but to no effect.
On the southwestern frontier, problems commencedearly when, in 815, Séguin, duke of Gascony, revolted. He wasdefeated and replaced by Lupus III, who was dispossessed in 818 bythe emperor.
In 820 an assembly at Quierzy-sur-Oise decided tosend an expedition against the Cordoban caliphate. The counts incharge of the army, Hugh, count of Tours, and Matfrid, count ofOrléans, were slow in acting and the expedition came tonaught.
First civil war
In 818, as Louis was returning from acampaign to Brittany, he was greeted by news of the death of hiswife, Ermengarde. Ermengarde was the daughter of Ingerman, the dukeof Hesbaye.
Louis had been close to his wife, who had beeninvolved in policymaking. It was rumoured that she had played a partin her nephew's death and Louis himself believed her own death wasdivine retribution for that event. It took many months for hiscourtiers and advisors to convince him to remarry, but eventually hedid, in 820, to Judith, daughter of Welf, count of Altdorf. In 823Judith gave birth to a son, who was named Charles.
The birth ofthis son damaged the Partition of Aachen, as Louis's attempts toprovide for his fourth son met with stiff resistance from his oldersons, and the last two decades of his reign were marked by civilwar.
At Worms in 829, Louis gave Charles Alemannia with the titleof king or duke (historians differ on this), thus enraging his sonand co-emperor Lothair,[5] whose promised share was therebydiminished. An insurrection was soon at hand.
With the urging ofthe vengeful Wala and the cooperation of his brothers, Lothairaccused Judith of having committed adultery with Bernard ofSeptimania, even suggesting Bernard to be the true father of Charles.Ebbo and Hildwin abandoned the emperor at that point, Bernard havingrisen to greater heights than either of them. Agobard, Archbishop ofLyon, and Jesse, bishop of Amiens, too, opposed the redivision of theempire and lent their episcopal prestige to the rebels.
In 830, atWala's insistence that Bernard of Septimania was plotting againsthim, Pepin of Aquitaine led an army of Gascons, with the support ofthe Neustrian magnates, all the way to Paris. At Verberie, Louis theGerman joined him.
At that time, the emperor returned fromanother campaign in Brittany to find his empire at war with itself.He marched as far as Compiègne, an ancient royal town, before beingsurrounded by Pepin's forces and captured. Judith was incarcerated atPoitiers and Bernard fled to Barcelona.
Then Lothair finally setout with a large Lombard army, but Louis had promised his sons Louisthe German and Pepin of Aquitaine greater shares of the inheritance,prompting them to shift loyalties in favour of their father. WhenLothair tried to call a general council of the realm in Nijmegen, inthe heart of Austrasia, the Austrasians and Rhinelanders came with afollowing of armed retainers, and the disloyal sons were forced tofree their father and bow at his feet (831).
Lothair waspardoned, but disgraced and banished to Italy. Pepin returned toAquitaine and Judith - after being forced to humiliate herself with asolemn oath of innocence - to Louis's court. Only Wala was severelydealt with, making his way to a secluded monastery on the shores ofLake Geneva. Though Hilduin, abbot of Saint Denis, was exiled toPaderborn and Elisachar and Matfrid were deprived of their honoursnorth of the Alps; they did not lose their freedom.
Second civilwar
The next revolt occurred a mere two years later (832). Thedisaffected Pepin was summoned to his father's court, where he was sopoorly received he left against his father's orders. Immediately,fearing that Pepin would be stirred up to revolt by his nobles anddesiring to reform his morals, Louis the Pious summoned all hisforces to meet in Aquitaine in preparation of an uprising, but Louisthe German garnered an army of Slav allies and conquered Swabiabefore the emperor could react.
Once again the elder Louisdivided his vast realm. At Jonac, he declared Charles king ofAquitaine and deprived Pepin (he was less harsh with the youngerLouis), restoring the whole rest of the empire to Lothair, not yetinvolved in the civil war.
Lothair was, however, interested inusurping his father's authority. His ministers had been in contactwith Pepin and may have convinced him and Louis the German to rebel,promising him Alemannia, the kingdom of Charles.
Soon Lothair,with the support of Pope Gregory IV, whom he had confirmed in officewithout his father's support, joined the revolt in 833. While Louiswas at Worms gathering a new force, Lothair marched north. Louismarched south. The armies met on the plains of the Rothfeld. There,Gregory met the emperor and may have tried to sow dissension amongsthis ranks. Soon much of Louis's army had evaporated before his eyes,and he ordered his few remaining followers to go, because "itwould be a pity if any man lost his life or limb on my account."
The resigned emperor was taken to Saint Médard at Soissons, hisson Charles to Prüm, and the queen to Tortona. The despicable showof disloyalty and disingenuousness earned the site the name Field ofLies, or Lügenfeld, or Campus Mendacii, ubi plurimorum fidelitasexstincta est[6]
On 13 November 833, Ebbo of Rheims presided overa synod in the Church of Saint Mary in Soissons which deposed Louisand forced him to publicly confess many crimes, none of which he had,in fact, committed. In return, Lothair gave Ebbo the Abbey of SaintVaast. Men like Rabanus Maurus, Louis' younger half-brothers Drogoand Hugh, and Emma, Judith's sister and Louis the German's new wife,worked on the younger Louis to make peace with his father, for thesake of unity of the empire.
The humiliation to which Louis wasthen subjected at Notre Dame in Compiègne turned the loyal barons ofAustrasia and Saxony against Lothair, and the usurper fled toBurgundy, skirmishing with loyalists near Chalon-sur-Saône. Louiswas restored the next year, on 1 March 834.
On Lothair's return toItaly, Wala, Jesse, and Matfrid, formerly count of Orléans, died ofa pestilence and, on 2 February 835, the Synod of Thionville deposedEbbo, Agobard, Bernard, Bishop of Vienne, and Bartholomew, Archbishopof Narbonne. Lothair himself fell ill; events had turned completelyin Louis favour once again.
In 836, however, the family made peaceand Louis restored Pepin and Louis, deprived Lothair of all saveItaly, and gave it to Charles in a new division, given at the diet ofCrémieu.
At about that time, the Vikings terrorised and sackedUtrecht and Antwerp. In 837, they went up the Rhine as far asNijmegen, and their king, Rorik, demanded the wergild of some of hisfollowers killed on previous expeditions before Louis the Piousmustered a massive force and marched against them. They fled, but itwould not be the last time they harried the northern coasts. In 838,they even claimed sovereignty over Frisia, but a treaty was confirmedbetween them and the Franks in 839. Louis the Pious ordered theconstruction of a North Sea fleet and the sending of missi dominiciinto Frisia to establish Frankish sovereignty there.
Third civilwar
In 837, Louis crowned Charles king over all of Alemannia andBurgundy and gave him a portion of his brother Louis' land. Louis theGerman promptly rose in revolt, and the emperor redivided his realmagain at Quierzy-sur-Oise, giving all of the young king of Bavaria'slands, save Bavaria itself, to Charles.
Emperor Louis did notstop there, however. His devotion to Charles knew no bounds. WhenPepin died in 838, Louis declared Charles the new king of Aquitaine.The nobles, however, elected Pepin's son Pepin II.
When Louisthreatened invasion, the third great civil war of his reign brokeout. In the spring of 839, Louis the German invaded Swabia, Pepin IIand his Gascon subjects fought all the way to the Loire, and theDanes returned to ravage the Frisian coast (sacking Dorstad for asecond time).
Lothair, for the first time in a long time, alliedwith his father and pledged support at Worms in exchange for aredivision of the inheritance. By a final placitum issued there,Louis gave Bavaria to Louis the German and disinherited Pepin II,leaving the entire remainder of the empire to be divided roughly into an eastern part and a western. Lothair was given the choice of which partition he would inherit and he chose the eastern, including Italy,leaving the western for Charles.
The emperor quickly subjugated Aquitaine and had Charles recognised by the nobles and clergy at Clermont-en-Auvergne in 840. Louis then, in a final flash of glory,rushed into Bavaria and forced the younger Louis into the Ostmark.The empire now settled as he had declared it at Worms, he returned in July to Frankfurt am Main, where he disbanded the army. The final civil war of his reign was over.
Louis fell ill soonafter his final victorious campaigns and went to his summer hunting lodge on an island in the Rhine, by his palace at Ingelheim. On 20June 840, he died, in the presence of many bishops and clerics and inthe arms of his half-brother Drogo, though Charles and Judith were absent in Poitiers.
Soon dispute plunged the surviving brothers into a civil war that was only settled in 843 by the Treaty ofVerdun, which split the Frankish realm into three parts, to become the kernels of France and Germany, with Burgundy and the Low Countries between them. The dispute over the kingship of Aquitaine was not fully settled until 860.
Louis the Pious, along with hishalf-brother Drogo, were buried in Saint Pierre aux Nonnains Basilicain Metz.

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