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Stamboom Homs » Fernando I 'el Magno' (Rey de Castilla y León) de Navarra rey de Castilla

Personal data Fernando I 'el Magno' (Rey de Castilla y León) de Navarra rey de Castilla Male


Image(s) Fernando I \'el Magno\' (Rey de Castilla y León) de Navarra rey de Castilla


Ancestors (and descendant) of Fernando I 'el Magno' de Navarra


Household of Fernando I 'el Magno' (Rey de Castilla y León) de Navarra rey de Castilla

He is married to Sancha I de León about November 1032.

Child(ren):

  1. Afonso Vi 'el Bravo' de Castilla Y León  ± 1040-1109 Tree 8


Notes by Fernando I 'el Magno' (Rey de Castilla y León) de Navarra rey de Castilla

Name Prefix: King Name Suffix: I, Of Castile "The Great"
Fernando ?den Store? var konge av Castilla 1035 - 1065 og konge av Leon 1037 -
1065.
Han var en dyktig hersker som forbedret de gamle vestgotiske lovene, reformerte
klostertukten og utvidet Castillas makt betydelig. Han utbredte sin makt også over deler av
Portugal og det nåværende Ny-Castilla. Med sin hustru, Sancha, fikk han landene mellom
Pisuerga og Cea.
I 1056 antok han keisertitel for å betegne sin overhøyhet over de andre spanske fyrster
og kom derved i strid med keiser Henrik III av Tyskland. Han ødela imidlertid selv Castillas
førerstilling ved å dele sitt rike mellom sine tre sønner Sancho, Alfons og Garcia, slik hans far
også hadde gjort.
Spain, unlike Britain, never fell outside of history after the collapse of the Western Empire , which gives us a continuous record of rule from Rome through the Visigoths and beyond. Nevertheless, Spain underwent her own unique transformation in the trauma of the Islamic conquest. The Visigoths were crushed and for almost three centuries a revived Christian kingdom, Asturias, could do little more than cling to the north coast and the northwest corner of Iberia. Nevertheless, more than one Christian state eventually organized and gradually reconquered the peninsula. Navarre (Navarra), Aragón, and Barcelona all began as march counties of Francia. Asturias/Galicia/León could claim direct succession from the Visigoths, while Castile (Castilla) was a march of León. There were at different times up to five different Spanish Christian kingdoms. These were all eventually consolidated. Portugal, which began as a county of León, was the only kingdom to ultimately maintain its independence of the rest of Spain. Spain was sometimes styled an "empire." Ferdinand I and Alfonso VII of Castile were sometimes styled "Emperor," but in Mediaeval Europe, the Popes regarded such a title as theirs to dispense, and no self-proclaimed emperors were going to get cooperation from the Church. In fact, Alfonso X of Castile was actually elected Holy Roman Emperor in 1257, but nothing came of it all. Alfonso never went to Germany, distracted by civil war (1275) and rebellion (1282), and it was already clear that the Pope had no intention of crowning him. When the Pope finally crowned Emperor a King of Spain, it was Charles V (Charles I of Spain), a 1/4 German Hapsburg who had been born and raised in Belgium. The Imperial crown then passed to Charles's brother Ferdinand of Austria, not to his son Philip II of Spain. [cf. J.H. Elliott, Imperial Spain, 1469-1716, Mentor, 1963; Adam Wandruszka, The House of Hapsburg, Anchor Books, 1965; & Denys Hay, Europe in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries, Longmans, Green and Co. Ltd., 1966.]
An issue of note concerns the names of the Kings. Since the major languages of Christendom use many of the same names, it is often possible to give translations. This was formerly the most common, so that in English one talked about "Johns" and "Peters" in the Spanish Kingdoms. This is now sometimes frowned upon, but the desire to use the "native" language of the country in question can produce some gaffs: One occasionally sees Kings of Portugal called "Juan," when this is actually just the Spanish, not the Portuguese, version of "John" -- that would be "João." Since there are other languages in the Iberian Peninsula -- Catalan, Basque, and Galician -- besides standard (Castilian) Spanish and Portuguese, it is often a good question just what vernacular language was being used in a particular time and place. There is also the complication that the Kings of Navarre marry into French Royalty and nobility and so after 1234 are all French speaking. The written language during much of the period, of course, would just be Latin.

"John" is "Juan" in Castilian, "Xoán" in Galician, "Ion" or "Jon" in Basque, "Joan" in Catalan, "Jean" in French, and "Johannes" in Latin (another form, "Iban," only occurs in the patronymic "Ibañez"). Simply using "John" would seem to be the least confusing and the most revealing. However, Portuguese and Spanish (Castilian) versions are given for most of the names (somewhat irregularly). Some names -- "Alfonso" and "Sancho" -- really do not have English equivalents. Sancho, the name of many Kings of Navarre, is written "Santxo" in Basque and may in fact have originally been a Basque name, though its origin in now obscure ("Santius" was the Latinized version). "Alfonso" becomes "Alphonse" in French, and this has been borrowed into English to an extent, but it is not very common, so "Alfonso," like "Sancho," is simply given in its Spanish form. Sometimes overlooked, again, is that the Portuguese, "Afonso," is different. Another problem is the English equivalent for Castilian "Juana," the feminine form of "Juan." Although this is simply "Jeanne" in French, or "Jone" in Basque, in English it could be "Joan," "Joanna," "Joanne," "Jane," or even "Jeanne." "Ferdinand" and "Fernando" are both of Spanish derivation, originally "Ferdinando." This was itself Visigothic, and the form now most familiar in English, "Ferdinand," is the version of the name as it passed into German with the marriage of Juana the Mad of Castile to Philip of Hapsburg. One of their sons was then the Emperor Ferdinand I . He was raised in Spain, speaking Spanish. His grandfather, Ferdinand II of Aragón, contemplated leaving the kingdom of Aragón to him in his will but thought better of it. Later, he was given the rule of Austria by his brother. Elected king of Hungary and Bohemia, he then succeeded his brother as Emperor.

His brother, of course, was the Emperor Charles V. It is "Charles" in French and English, "Carlos" in Spanish and Portuguese, "Carolus" in Latin, and "Karl" in German. The story about Charles is that he only spoke German to his horse. He was raised at the court of his grandfather, the Emperor Maximilian I, in the Netherlands, speaking Flemish, where his name would be, I think, "Karel," as in Dutch. There is a monument to Charles V in Guadalajara, Mexico. It actually calls him "King Charles V" ("Rey Carlos V"), which is not quite right since, as King of Spain, he was Charles I. All this seems to confuse everybody.

The colors here go with the kingdoms, but as the kingdoms combine, the color of the dominant kingdom supersedes the others. Thus yellow, the color for Castile (which started as a County of León, was detached by Sancho the Great of Navarre, and then was willed to his son Ferdinand I as a separate kingdom), is also the color for Spain as a whole, as Castile absorbs León, Aragón, and then, briefly, Portugal. A minor variation is that the red is darker for the Kingdom of the Asturias, of which León was essentially a continuation. The change in name took place after one of the characteristic divisions and then recombinations, several of which we see later, between brothers, sometimes brothers who become hostile and murderous to each other.

The Islâmic rulers of Spain, 756-1492, are listed separately from this page, with the other rulers of Islâm, linked in the table at right. The first three hundred years after the Islâmic Conquest were tough times, naturally, for Christian Spain, which took quite a while to even get organized in some areas. These years were largely those of the Omayyad Amirs and Caliphs, who may be said to have presided over the Golden Age of Islâmic Spain. The suprisingly rapid decline of the Omayyads in the 11th century quickly led to complete political fragmentation and to grave vulnerability to the rising Christian Kingdoms.

It should be noted that although Spanish Christians later referred to all Spanish, and also North African, Moslems as "Moors," this lumps together ethnically and linguistically distinct peoples, particularly those who were actually Arabs and those who were of North African Berber derivation. There was sometimes tension and conflict between these groups in Islâmic Spain. "Moors" also would mean native Spaniard converts to Islâm, the Muwalladûn. If one then considers sub-Saharan black African Moslems as "Moors," like Shakespeare's Othello, this adds another group, one that would have been noticeable in North Africa but probably not of much significance in Spain. To many people, however, "Moor" always means "black," and this is a serious confusion. Indeed, a factor in the 11th century in Spain were slave troops, the S.aqâliba, that consisted, not of Africans, but of captives from Christian Europe. Also confusing is the tradition of calling Christians in Islâmic Spain "Mozarabs."

Navarre, which is perhaps known too generally by the French version of its name, was originally a kingdom of the Basques, an apparently autochthonous people whose language has no demonstrable affinities to any other in the world, much less to any in the area. Interesting genetic information about this is reported by Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza in Genes, Peoples, and Languages [University of California Press, 2000]. The Basque region turns out to be the center of a characteristic gene component of European populations. Cavalli-Sforza says:
...the Basques once inhabited a much larger territory than today... During the last Paleolothic period the Basque region extended over almost the entire area where ancient cave paintings have been found. There are some cues [sic, "clues"?] that Basque descends from a language spoken 35,000 to 40,000 years ago, during the first occupation of France by modern humans... The artists of these caves would have spoken a language of the first, preagricultural Europeans, from which modern Basque is derived. [pp.120-121]

Thus, neither the French nor the Spanish ("Navarra") version of the name of the kingdom is necessarily more "accurate" than the Basque version, "Nafarroa." While Navarre was the dominant Spanish kingdom under Sancho the Great, its power and extent declined quickly and decisively. Of the seven Basque provinces in Spain and France (where only about 12,000 people speak Basque any longer), only two ended up belonging to Navarre proper. I have not noticed Basque nationalists claiming to have invented art (i.e. the cave paintings), but they apparently would have as reasonable a claim as anyone.
Spain, unlike Britain, never fell outside of history after the collapse of the Western Empire , which gives us a continuous record of rule from Rome through the Visigoths and beyond. Nevertheless, Spain underwent her own unique transformation in the trauma of the Islamic conquest. The Visigoths were crushed and for almost three centuries a revived Christian kingdom, Asturias, could do little more than cling to the north coast and the northwest corner of Iberia. Nevertheless, more than one Christian state eventually organized and gradually reconquered the peninsula. Navarre (Navarra), Aragón, and Barcelona all began as march counties of Francia. Asturias/Galicia/León could claim direct succession from the Visigoths, while Castile (Castilla) was a march of León. There were at different times up to five different Spanish Christian kingdoms. These were all eventually consolidated. Portugal, which began as a county of León, was the only kingdom to ultimately maintain its independence of the rest of Spain. Spain was sometimes styled an "empire." Ferdinand I and Alfonso VII of Castile were sometimes styled "Emperor," but in Mediaeval Europe, the Popes regarded such a title as theirs to dispense, and no self-proclaimed emperors were going to get cooperation from the Church. In fact, Alfonso X of Castile was actually elected Holy Roman Emperor in 1257, but nothing came of it all. Alfonso never went to Germany, distracted by civil war (1275) and rebellion (1282), and it was already clear that the Pope had no intention of crowning him. When the Pope finally crowned Emperor a King of Spain, it was Charles V (Charles I of Spain), a 1/4 German Hapsburg who had been born and raised in Belgium. The Imperial crown then passed to Charles's brother Ferdinand of Austria, not to his son Philip II of Spain. [cf. J.H. Elliott, Imperial Spain, 1469-1716, Mentor, 1963; Adam Wandruszka, The House of Hapsburg, Anchor Books, 1965; & Denys Hay, Europe in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries, Longmans, Green and Co. Ltd., 1966.]
An issue of note concerns the names of the Kings. Since the major languages of Christendom use many of the same names, it is often possible to give translations. This was formerly the most common, so that in English one talked about "Johns" and "Peters" in the Spanish Kingdoms. This is now sometimes frowned upon, but the desire to use the "native" language of the country in question can produce some gaffs: One occasionally sees Kings of Portugal called "Juan," when this is actually just the Spanish, not the Portuguese, version of "John" -- that would be "João." Since there are other languages in the Iberian Peninsula -- Catalan, Basque, and Galician -- besides standard (Castilian) Spanish and Portuguese, it is often a good question just what vernacular language was being used in a particular time and place. There is also the complication that the Kings of Navarre marry into French Royalty and nobility and so after 1234 are all French speaking. The written language during much of the period, of course, would just be Latin.

"John" is "Juan" in Castilian, "Xoán" in Galician, "Ion" or "Jon" in Basque, "Joan" in Catalan, "Jean" in French, and "Johannes" in Latin (another form, "Iban," only occurs in the patronymic "Ibañez"). Simply using "John" would seem to be the least confusing and the most revealing. However, Portuguese and Spanish (Castilian) versions are given for most of the names (somewhat irregularly). Some names -- "Alfonso" and "Sancho" -- really do not have English equivalents. Sancho, the name of many Kings of Navarre, is written "Santxo" in Basque and may in fact have originally been a Basque name, though its origin in now obscure ("Santius" was the Latinized version). "Alfonso" becomes "Alphonse" in French, and this has been borrowed into English to an extent, but it is not very common, so "Alfonso," like "Sancho," is simply given in its Spanish form. Sometimes overlooked, again, is that the Portuguese, "Afonso," is different. Another problem is the English equivalent for Castilian "Juana," the feminine form of "Juan." Although this is simply "Jeanne" in French, or "Jone" in Basque, in English it could be "Joan," "Joanna," "Joanne," "Jane," or even "Jeanne." "Ferdinand" and "Fernando" are both of Spanish derivation, originally "Ferdinando." This was itself Visigothic, and the form now most familiar in English, "Ferdinand," is the version of the name as it passed into German with the marriage of Juana the Mad of Castile to Philip of Hapsburg. One of their sons was then the Emperor Ferdinand I . He was raised in Spain, speaking Spanish. His grandfather, Ferdinand II of Aragón, contemplated leaving the kingdom of Aragón to him in his will but thought better of it. Later, he was given the rule of Austria by his brother. Elected king of Hungary and Bohemia, he then succeeded his brother as Emperor.

His brother, of course, was the Emperor Charles V. It is "Charles" in French and English, "Carlos" in Spanish and Portuguese, "Carolus" in Latin, and "Karl" in German. The story about Charles is that he only spoke German to his horse. He was raised at the court of his grandfather, the Emperor Maximilian I, in the Netherlands, speaking Flemish, where his name would be, I think, "Karel," as in Dutch. There is a monument to Charles V in Guadalajara, Mexico. It actually calls him "King Charles V" ("Rey Carlos V"), which is not quite right since, as King of Spain, he was Charles I. All this seems to confuse everybody.

The colors here go with the kingdoms, but as the kingdoms combine, the color of the dominant kingdom supersedes the others. Thus yellow, the color for Castile (which started as a County of León, was detached by Sancho the Great of Navarre, and then was willed to his son Ferdinand I as a separate kingdom), is also the color for Spain as a whole, as Castile absorbs León, Aragón, and then, briefly, Portugal. A minor variation is that the red is darker for the Kingdom of the Asturias, of which León was essentially a continuation. The change in name took place after one of the characteristic divisions and then recombinations, several of which we see later, between brothers, sometimes brothers who become hostile and murderous to each other.

The Islâmic rulers of Spain, 756-1492, are listed separately from this page, with the other rulers of Islâm, linked in the table at right. The first three hundred years after the Islâmic Conquest were tough times, naturally, for Christian Spain, which took quite a while to even get organized in some areas. These years were largely those of the Omayyad Amirs and Caliphs, who may be said to have presided over the Golden Age of Islâmic Spain. The suprisingly rapid decline of the Omayyads in the 11th century quickly led to complete political fragmentation and to grave vulnerability to the rising Christian Kingdoms.

It should be noted that although Spanish Christians later referred to all Spanish, and also North African, Moslems as "Moors," this lumps together ethnically and linguistically distinct peoples, particularly those who were actually Arabs and those who were of North African Berber derivation. There was sometimes tension and conflict between these groups in Islâmic Spain. "Moors" also would mean native Spaniard converts to Islâm, the Muwalladûn. If one then considers sub-Saharan black African Moslems as "Moors," like Shakespeare's Othello, this adds another group, one that would have been noticeable in North Africa but probably not of much significance in Spain. To many people, however, "Moor" always means "black," and this is a serious confusion. Indeed, a factor in the 11th century in Spain were slave troops, the S.aqâliba, that consisted, not of Africans, but of captives from Christian Europe. Also confusing is the tradition of calling Christians in Islâmic Spain "Mozarabs."

Navarre, which is perhaps known too generally by the French version of its name, was originally a kingdom of the Basques, an apparently autochthonous people whose language has no demonstrable affinities to any other in the world, much less to any in the area. Interesting genetic information about this is reported by Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza in Genes, Peoples, and Languages [University of California Press, 2000]. The Basque region turns out to be the center of a characteristic gene component of European populations. Cavalli-Sforza says:
...the Basques once inhabited a much larger territory than today... During the last Paleolothic period the Basque region extended over almost the entire area where ancient cave paintings have been found. There are some cues [sic, "clues"?] that Basque descends from a language spoken 35,000 to 40,000 years ago, during the first occupation of France by modern humans... The artists of these caves would have spoken a language of the first, preagricultural Europeans, from which modern Basque is derived. [pp.120-121]

Thus, neither the French nor the Spanish ("Navarra") version of the name of the kingdom is necessarily more "accurate" than the Basque version, "Nafarroa." While Navarre was the dominant Spanish kingdom under Sancho the Great, its power and extent declined quickly and decisively. Of the seven Basque provinces in Spain and France (where only about 12,000 people speak Basque any longer), only two ended up belonging to Navarre proper. I have not noticed Basque nationalists claiming to have invented art (i.e. the cave paintings), but they apparently would have as reasonable a claim as anyone.
Ferdinand I or Ferdinand the Great,d. 1065, Spanish king of Castile (1035?65) and León (1037?65). He inherited Castile from his father, Sancho III of Navarre, conquered León, and took parts of Navarre from his brother García. Ferdinand fought successfully against the Moors and reduced to vassalage the Moorish kings of Zaragoza, Badajoz, Seville, and Toledo. At the Council of Coyanza (1050) he confirmed the laws of Alfonso V and introduced church reforms. He divided his kingdom among his sons: Castile went to Sancho II, León to Alfonso VI, and Galicia to García.
After his troops killed his brother Garcia IV, King of Navarre in 1054, he
assumed rule of Navarre. On his death, he divided his kingdom amongst his
three sons, Sancho, Alfonso, and Garcia. By 1037, the male line of the house
of Leon had become extinct, so Ferdinand united the kingdom with his own. The
history of Leon is identical with that of Castile,until 1157 when Leon became
an independent kingdom. Ferdinand III, King of Castile, inherited the throne
of Leon in 1230, and Leon & Castile became as one: Castile.
Ferdinand I of León
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ferdinand I, called the Great (in his time, El Magno) (1017–León, 1065), was the count of Castile from his uncle's death in 1029 and the king of León—through his wife—after defeating his brother-in-law in 1037 until his death in 1065. He was crowned Emperor of All Hispania in 1056.

Ferdinand was barely in his teens when García Sanchez, Count of Castile, was assassinated by a party of exiled Castilian noblemen as he was entering the church of St John the Baptist in León, where he had gone to marry Sancha, sister of Bermudo III. In his role as feudal overlord, Sancho III of Navarre nominated his second legitimate son Ferdinand, born to the deceased count's sister Munia, as successor, and further arranged for Ferdinand to marry García'a intended bride, Sancha of León.

On his father's death, Ferdinand continued as count of Castile, now recognizing the suzerainty of his brother-in-law Bermudo III, but they fell out and on 4 September 1037 Bermudo was killed in battle with Fernando at Tamarón. Ferdinand took possession of León by right of his wife, who was the heiress presumptive, and the next year had himself formally crowned king of León and Castile. He overran the Moorish section of Galicia, and set up his vassal as count in what is now northern Portugal. With northern Iberia consolidated, Ferdinand, in 1039, proclaimed himself emperor of Hispania. The use of the title was resented by the Emperor Henry III and Pope Victor II in 1055 as implying a claim to the headship of Christendom and as a usurpation of the Roman Empire. It did not, however, mean more than that the sovereign of León was the chief of the princes of the Iberian peninsula, and that Iberia was independent of the Holy Roman Empire. Ferdinand's brothers García V of Navarre and Ramiro I of Aragón opposed his power, but were both killed in ensuing battles, leaving Ferdinand preeminent.

Ferdinand died on the feast of Saint John the Baptist, 24 June 1065, in León, with many manifestations of ardent piety, having laid aside his crown and royal mantle, dressed in the robe of a monk and lying on a bier covered with ashes, which was placed before the altar of the church of Saint Isidore. At his death, Ferdinand divided up his kingdom between his three sons: Sancho, who received Castile; Alfonso, who received León; and Garcia, who received Galicia. His two daughters each received cities: Elvira received Toro and Urraca received Zamora. By giving them his dominion, he wanted them to abide by the split in the kingdom and respect his wishes. However, Sancho (born 1032), being the oldest, believed that he deserved more of the kingdom, and therefore sought to gain possession of the divided parts of the kingdom that had been given to his siblings.

(note: the Dutch version of Wikipedia says that Ferdinand died on 27 December 1065 ?)

[edit] References
This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
Preceded by
Sancho I Count of Castile
1029-1037 Succeeded by
Title Extinct
Preceded by
Bermudo III King of León
1037-1065 Succeeded by
Alfonso VI (in Leon)
Sancho II (in Castile)
Garcia (in Galicia)
Vacant
Title last held by
Bermudo III Emperor of Spain
1056 – 1065 Vacant
Title next held by
Alfonso VI of Castile
After his troops killed his brother Garcia IV, King of Navarre in 1054, he
assumed rule of Navarre. On his death, he divided his kingdom amongst his
three sons, Sancho, Alfonso, and Garcia. By 1037, the male line of the house
of Leon had become extinct, so Ferdinand united the kingdom with his own. The
history of Leon is identical with that of Castile,until 1157 when Leon became
an independent kingdom. Ferdinand III, King of Castile, inherited the throne
of Leon in 1230, and Leon & Castile became as one: Castile.
After his troops killed his brother Garcia IV, King of Navarre in 1054, he
assumed rule of Navarre. On his death, he divided his kingdom amongst his
three sons, Sancho, Alfonso, and Garcia. By 1037, the male line of the house
of Leon had become extinct, so Ferdinand united the kingdom with his own. The
history of Leon is identical with that of Castile,until 1157 when Leon became
an independent kingdom. Ferdinand III, King of Castile, inherited the throne
of Leon in 1230, and Leon & Castile became as one: Castile.
A biography of Fernando I
After his troops killed his brother Garcia IV, King of Navarre in 1054, he
assumed rule of Navarre. On his death, he divided his kingdom amongst his
three sons, Sancho, Alfonso, and Garcia. By 1037, the male line of the house
of Leon had become extinct, so Ferdinand united the kingdom with his own. The
history of Leon is identical with that of Castile,until 1157 when Leon became
an independent kingdom. Ferdinand III, King of Castile, inherited the throne
of Leon in 1230, and Leon & Castile became as one: Castile.
{geni:occupation} Rey de León y Conde de Castilla, Rey de Castilla (2do 1035) Rey de Leon (18th, 1037), Rey de Galicia (1037), Conde de Castilla y Rey de León, King of Leon/Count of Castile, 1º rey de Castilla desde 1035., Rey de Castilla, Rey de León, King
{geni:about_me} Ferdinand Ier dit le Grand, (né v. 1016 - mort en 1065), fut roi de Castille (1035-1065), territoire auquel s'ajoutèrent, en 1037, la province de León et, en 1054, celle de Navarre.
Fils du roi Sanche iii de Navarre et de Munia Mayor de Castille, Ferdinand épousa la sœur de Bermude iii, roi de León. En 1037, il battit l'armée de Bermude et revendiqua le trône, invoquant le droit de succession de son épouse. En 1054, il remporta la victoire sur les Navarrais près de Burgos, tuant son frère, García iv, roi de Navarre, au cours de la bataille. Ce succès lui permit d'agrandir encore son royaume.

Ferdinand s'illustra également par ses victoires contre les Maures, auxquels il enleva Coimbra en 1064. Avant de mourir, il partagea ses possessions entre ses trois fils, ouvrant une lutte fratricide.

Abbad ii respectueux de la foi chrétienne, autorisa à Ferdinand Ier le Grand, en 1063, le transfert de Séville à León des restes de saint Isidore, le grand docteur de l’Église wisigothique des vie et viie siècles.

Sur mandat de Ferdinand Ier, les évêques leonais et asturiens, Alvito et Ordoño, venaient chercher à Séville les reliques du saint docteur qui furent transférées dans l'église San Juan de León, désormais appelée San Isidoro.

http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_Ier_de_Castille

http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fernando_I_de_Le%C3%B3n_y_Castilla

Fernando I de León, llamado el Magno o el Grande, (c. 1010/1012 – León, 27 de diciembre de 1065), fue conde de Castilla desde 1028 y rey de León desde el año 1037 hasta su muerte, siendo ungido como tal el 22 de junio de 1038.

Era hijo de Sancho Garcés III, llamado «el Mayor», rey de Pamplona, y de Doña Muniadona, hermana de García Sánchez de Castilla, del cual heredó Fernando el Condado de Castilla en 1028, si bien no ejercería el gobierno efectivo hasta la muerte de su padre. Se convirtió en Rey de León por su matrimonio con Doña Sancha, hermana de su rey y señor, Bermudo III, contra el que se levantó en armas, el cual falleció sin dejar descendencia luchando con Fernando en la batalla de Tamarón.

Casó con Sancha de León, hija de Alfonso V de León y hermana de Bermudo III de León. De esta unión nacieron:[5]

* Urraca (c. 1033–1101), señora de Zamora.
* Sancho (1038–1072), rey de Castilla como Sancho I, y de León como Sancho II (1065–1072).
* Elvira, (¿?–1101), señora de Toro.
* Alfonso (1040–1109), rey de León (1065–1072) y de León, Castilla y Galicia (1072–1109), como Alfonso VI.
* García (1042–1090), rey de Galicia (1066–1071 y 1072–1073).

--------------------
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_I_of_Castile
--------------------
Ferdinand I (1017 – 24 June 1065), called the Great (El Magno), was the Count of Castile from his uncle's death 1029 and the King of León, through his wife, after defeating his brother-in-law in 1037. He was the son of Sancho III of Navarre and Mayor of Castile, and is usually recognised as the first King of Castile. He had himself crowned Emperor of Spain in 1056.

[source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_I_of_León]
--------------------
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_I_of_Le%C3%B3n_and_Castile
--------------------
Ferdinand I (1017 – 24 June 1065), called the Great (El Magno), was the son of Sancho III of Navarre and Mayor of Castile, and became Count of Castile from his uncle's death in 1029. Having acquired the Kingdom of León after defeating his brother-in-law in 1037, he became King of León and Castile. He had himself crowned Emperor of Spain in 1056.

Ferdinand was barely in his teens when García Sánchez, Count of Castile, was assassinated by a party of exiled Castilian noblemen as he was entering the church of John the Baptist in León, where he had gone to marry Sancha, sisterof Bermudo III King of Leon. In his role as feudal overlord, Sancho III of Navarre nominated his younger son Ferdinand, born to the deceased count's sister Mayor, as successor, and further arranged for Ferdinand to marry García'sintended bride, Sancha of León.

On his father's death, Ferdinand continued as count of Castile, now recognizing the suzerainty of his brother-in-law Bermudo III, but they fell out and on 4 September 1037 Bermudo was killed in battle with Fernando at Tamarón. Ferdinand took possession of León by right of his wife, who was the heiress presumptive, and the next year had himself formally crowned king of León and Castile. He overran the Moorish section of Galicia, and set up his vassal as count in what is now northern Portugal. With northern Iberia consolidated, Ferdinand, in 1039, proclaimed himself emperor of Hispania. The use of the title was resented by the Emperor Henry III and Pope Victor II in 1055 as implying a claim to the headship of Christendom and as a usurpation of the Roman Empire. It did not, however, mean more than that the sovereign of León was the chief of the princes of the Iberian peninsula. Ferdinand's brothers García Sánchez III of Navarre and Ramiro I of Aragón opposed his power, but were both killed in ensuing battles, leaving Ferdinand preeminent.

Ferdinand died on the feast of Saint John the Baptist, 24 June 1065, in León, with many manifestations of ardent piety, having laid aside his crown and royal mantle, dressed in the robe of a monk and lying on a bier covered with ashes, which was placed before the altar of the Basilica of San Isidoro. At his death, Ferdinand divided up his kingdom between his three sons, the eldest, Sancho, receiving Castile and Alfonso being given León, while from the latter the region of Galicia was carved off to create a separate state for Garcia. Ferdinand's two daughters each received cities: Elvira, Toro and Urraca, Zamora. In giving them these territories, he expressed his desire that they respect his wishes and abide by the split. However, soon after Fernando's death, Sancho and Alfonso turned on García, and defeating him they then fought each other, the victorious Sancho reuniting their father's possessions under his control in 1072.

[edit] References
This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
Preceded by
García Sánchez Count of Castile
1029-1037 Succeeded by
Title Extinct
Preceded by
Bermudo III (in León) King of León and Castile
1037-1065 Succeeded by
Alfonso VI (in León)
Sancho II (in Castile)
Garcia (in Galicia)
Vacant
Title last held by
Bermudo III Emperor of Spain
1056 – 1065 Vacant
Title next held by
Alfonso VI of León
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_I_of_Le%C3%B3n_and_Castile"

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Ferdinand I of León
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ferdinand I, called the Great (in his time, El Magno) (1017–León, 1065), was the count of Castile from his uncle's death in 1029 and the king of León—through his wife—after defeating his brother-in-law in 1037 until his death in 1065. He was crowned Emperor of All Hispania in 1056.
Ferdinand was barely in his teens when García Sánchez, Count of Castile, was assassinated by a party of exiled Castilian noblemen as he was entering the church of St John the Baptist in León, where he had gone to marry Sancha, sister of Bermudo III. In his role as feudal overlord, Sancho III of Navarre nominated his second legitimate son Ferdinand, born to the deceased count's sister Munia, as successor, and further arranged for Ferdinand to marry García'aintended bride, Sancha of León.
On his father's death, Ferdinand continued as count of Castile, now recognizing the suzerainty of his brother-in-law Bermudo III, but they fell out and on 4 September 1037 Bermudo was killed in battle with Fernando at Tamarón. Ferdinand took possession of León by right of his wife, who was the heiress presumptive, and the next year had himself formally crowned king of León and Castile. He overran the Moorish section of Galicia, and set up his vassal as count in what is now northern Portugal. With northern Iberia consolidated, Ferdinand, in 1039, proclaimed himself emperor of Hispania. The use of the title was resented by the Emperor Henry III and Pope Victor II in 1055 as implying a claim to the headship of Christendom and as a usurpation of the Roman Empire. It did not, however, mean more than that the sovereign of León was the chief of the princes of the Iberian peninsula, and that Iberia was independent of the Holy Roman Empire. Ferdinand's brothers García V of Navarre and Ramiro I of Aragón opposed his power, but were both killed in ensuing battles, leaving Ferdinand preeminent.
Ferdinand died on the feast of Saint John the Baptist, 24 June 1065, in León, with many manifestations of ardent piety, having laid aside his crown and royal mantle, dressed in the robe of a monk and lying on a bier covered with ashes, which was placed before the altar of the church of Saint Isidore. At his death, Ferdinand divided up his kingdom between his three sons: Sancho, who received Castile; Alfonso, who received León; and Garcia, who received Galicia. His two daughters each received cities: Elvira received Toro and Urraca received Zamora. By giving them his dominion, he wanted them to abide by the split in the kingdom and respect his wishes. However, Sancho (born 1032), being the oldest, believed that he deserved more of the kingdom, and therefore sought to gain possession of the divided parts of the kingdom that had been given to his siblings.
(note: the Dutch version of Wikipedia says that Ferdinand died on 27 December 1065 ?)

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Ferdinand I, called the Great (in his time, El Magno) (1017–León, 1065), son of Sancho III of Navarre and Mayor of Castile, was the count of Castile from his uncle's death in 1029 and the king of León—through his wife—after defeating his brother-in-law in 1037 until his death in 1065. He was crowned Emperor of All Hispania in 1056.

Ferdinand was barely in his teens when García Sánchez, Count of Castile, was assassinated by a party of exiled Castilian noblemen as he was entering the church of St John the Baptist in León, where he had gone to marry Sancha, sister of Bermudo III. In his role as feudal overlord, Sancho III of Navarre nominated his younger son Ferdinand, born to the deceased count's sister Mayor, as successor, and further arranged for Ferdinand to marry García'a intended bride, Sancha of León.

On his father's death, Ferdinand continued as count of Castile, now recognizing the suzerainty of his brother-in-law Bermudo III, but they fell out and on 4 September 1037 Bermudo was killed in battle with Fernando at Tamarón. Ferdinand took possession of León by right of his wife, who was the heiress presumptive, and the next year had himself formally crowned king of León and Castile. He overran the Moorish section of Galicia, and set up his vassal as count in what is now northern Portugal. With northern Iberia consolidated, Ferdinand, in 1039, proclaimed himself emperor of Hispania. The use of the title was resented by the Emperor Henry III and Pope Victor II in 1055 as implying a claim to the headship of Christendom and as a usurpation of the Roman Empire. It did not, however, mean more than that the sovereign of León was the chief of the princes of the Iberian peninsula, and that Iberia was independent of the Holy Roman Empire. Ferdinand's brothers García V of Navarre and Ramiro I of Aragón opposed his power, but were both killed in ensuing battles, leaving Ferdinand preeminent.

Ferdinand died on the feast of Saint John the Baptist, 24 June 1065, in León, with many manifestations of ardent piety, having laid aside his crown and royal mantle, dressed in the robe of a monk and lying on a bier covered with ashes, which was placed before the altar of the church of Saint Isidore. At his death, Ferdinand divided up his kingdom between his three sons: Sancho, who received Castile; Alfonso, who received León; and Garcia, who received Galicia. His two daughters each received cities: Elvira received Toro and Urraca received Zamora. By giving them his dominion, he wanted them to abide by the split in the kingdom and respect his wishes. However, Sancho (born 1032), being the oldest, believed that he deserved more of the kingdom, and therefore sought to gain possession of the divided parts of the kingdom that had been given to his siblings.
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Ferdinand I, called the Great (in his time, El Magno) (1017–León, 1065), was the king of Castile from his father's death in 1035 and the king of León—through his wife—after defeating his brother-in-law in 1037 until his death in 1065. He was crowned Emperor of All Hispania in 1056.

Ferdinand was the second eldest legitimate son of Sancho III of Navarre. He was barely in his teens when he was put in possession of Castile in 1028 or 1029 with his father's backing, on the murder of the last count, as the heir of his mother Munia, daughter of a previous count of Castile and sister of the deceased count. That count, Don García, was about to be married to Doña Sancha, sister of Bermudo III, king of León, but was assassinated as he was entering the church of St John the Baptist in León by a party of Castilian nobles, exiles from their own land, who had taken refuge in León.

Ferdinand now married Sancha of León instead. He reigned in Castile with the title of king from 1033, though his father, King Sancho, did not die until 1035. On 4 September 1037, when his brother-in-law Bermudo was killed in battle with him at Tamarón, Ferdinand took possession of León as well, by right of his wife who was the heiress presumptive. He overran the Moorish section of Galicia, and set up his vassal as count in what is now northern Portugal. With northern Iberia consolidated, Ferdinand, in 1039, proclaimed himself emperor of Hispania. The use of the title was resented by the Emperor Henry III and Pope Victor II in 1055 as implying a claim to the headship of Christendom and as a usurpation of the Roman Empire. It did not, however, mean more than that the sovereign of León was the chief of the princes of the Iberian peninsula, and that Iberia was independent of the Holy Roman Empire. Ferdinand's brothers García V of Navarre and Ramiro I of Aragón opposed his power, but were both killed in ensuing battles, leaving Ferdinand preeminent.

Ferdinand died on the feast of Saint John the Baptist, 24 June 1065, in León, with many manifestations of ardent piety, having laid aside his crown and royal mantle, dressed in the robe of a monk and lying on a bier covered with ashes, which was placed before the altar of the church of Saint Isidore. At his death, Ferdinand divided up his kingdom between his three sons: Sancho, who received Castile; Alfonso, who received León; and Garcia, who received Galicia. His two daughters each received cities: Elvira received Toro and Urraca received Zamora. By giving them his dominion, he wanted them to abide by the split in the kingdom and respect his wishes. However, Sancho (born 1032), being the oldest, believed that he deserved more of the kingdom, and therefore sought to gain possession of the divided parts of the kingdom that had been given to his siblings.
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BIOGRAPHY: King of Castile (1033-65) and of Leon (1037-65); he was the scond son of King Sancho III of Navarre. In 1037 Ferdinand defeated Burmudo in a battle at Tamaron, acquiring Leon through Sancha's right of succession. Ferdinand won the Battle of Atapuerca over his brother in 1054 and was recognized as the emperor of Spain in 1056. By his territorial acquistions from the Moors between 1058 and 1065, Ferdinand inaugurated the period of Christian reconquest of Spanish land from the Muslims. Before his death, Ferdinand provided that his estates be divided among his three sons, thus bequeathing a legacy of fratricidal strife that did not end until the accession of Alfonso I to thethrone of Castile in 1072.

!Royal Ancestors of some LDS Families by Michel L. Call.

b. 1016/18

d. Dec. 27, 1065, León, Leon

byname FERDINAND THE GREAT, Spanish FERNANDO EL MAGNO, the first ruler of Castile to take the title of king; he was also crowned emperor of Leon.

Ferdinand's father, Sancho III of Navarre, had acquired Castile and established hegemony over the Christian states. On his death in 1035 he left Navarre to his eldest son (García III) and Castile to his second son, Ferdinand, who had married Sancha, sister and heiress of Bermudo III of Leon. Ferdinand's Castilians defeated and killed Bermudo at Tamarón in 1037, and he had himself crowned emperor in the city of León in 1039. In 1054 his Castilian troops defeated and killed his elder brother, García III, at Atapuerca, and he added Navarre to his possessions. In 1062 he forced the Muslim ruler of Toledo to pay him tribute and imposed vassalage on Saragossa and Seville. He conquered Coimbra in central Portugal and laid siege to Valencia, but he failed to capture it.

He followed the custom of dividing his estates, leaving Castile to the eldest, Sancho II; Leon to the second, Alfonso VI; and Galicia to the third. The first two dispossessed the third; and, on the murder of Sancho, Alfonso VI recovered the whole, becoming emperor.

Copyright © 1994-2001 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

History: Ferdinand I (of Castile and León), called The Great (1005?-65), king of Castile (1035-65) and of León (1037-65); he was the second son of King Sancho III of Navarre. Ferdinand married Sancha, the sister of Bermudo III, king of León, and heiress to the throne of León. In 1037 Ferdinand defeated Bermudo in a battle at Tamaron, acquiring León through Sancha's right of succession. Ferdinand won the Battle of Atapuerca over his brother in 1054 and was recognized as the emperor of Spain in 1056. By his territorial acquisitions from the Moors between 1058 and 1065, Ferdinand inaugurated the period of Christian reconquest of Spanish land from the Muslims. Before his death Ferdinand provided that his estates be divided among his three sons, thus bequeathing a legacy of fratricidal strife that did not end until the accession of Alfonso I to the throne of Castile in 1072.

Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
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Ferdinand I, called the Great (in his time, El Magno) (1017–León, 1065), son of Sancho III of Navarre and Mayor of Castile, was the count of Castile from his uncle's death in 1029 and the king of León—through his wife—after defeating his brother-in-law in 1037 until his death in 1065. He was crowned Emperor of All Hispania in 1056.

Ferdinand was barely in his teens when García Sánchez, Count of Castile, was assassinated by a party of exiled Castilian noblemen as he was entering the church of St John the Baptist in León, where he had gone to marry Sancha, sister of Bermudo III. In his role as feudal overlord, Sancho III of Navarre nominated his younger son Ferdinand, born to the deceased count's sister Mayor, as successor, and further arranged for Ferdinand to marry García'a intended bride, Sancha of León.

On his father's death, Ferdinand continued as count of Castile, now recognizing the suzerainty of his brother-in-law Bermudo III, but they fell out and on 4 September 1037 Bermudo was killed in battle with Fernando at Tamarón. Ferdinand took possession of León by right of his wife, who was the heiress presumptive, and the next year had himself formally crowned king of León and Castile. He overran the Moorish section of Galicia, and set up his vassal as count in what is now northern Portugal. With northern Iberia consolidated, Ferdinand, in 1039, proclaimed himself emperor of Hispania. The use of the title was resented by the Emperor Henry III and Pope Victor II in 1055 as implying a claim to the headship of Christendom and as a usurpation of the Roman Empire. It did not, however, mean more than that the sovereign of León was the chief of the princes of the Iberian peninsula, and that Iberia was independent of the Holy Roman Empire. Ferdinand's brothers García V of Navarre and Ramiro I of Aragón opposed his power, but were both killed in ensuing battles, leaving Ferdinand preeminent.

Ferdinand died on the feast of Saint John the Baptist, 24 June 1065, in León, with many manifestations of ardent piety, having laid aside his crown and royal mantle, dressed in the robe of a monk and lying on a bier covered with ashes, which was placed before the altar of the church of Saint Isidore. At his death, Ferdinand divided up his kingdom between his three sons: Sancho, who received Castile; Alfonso, who received León; and Garcia, who received Galicia. His two daughters each received cities: Elvira received Toro and Urraca received Zamora. By giving them his dominion, he wanted them to abide by the split in the kingdom and respect his wishes. However, Sancho (born 1032), being the oldest, believed that he deserved more of the kingdom, and therefore sought to gain possession of the divided parts of the kingdom that had been given to his siblings.
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b. 1016/18

d. Jun. 24, 1065, León, Leon

byname FERDINAND THE GREAT, Spanish FERNANDO EL MAGNO, the first ruler of Castile to take the title of king; he was also crowned emperor of Leon.

Ferdinand's father, Sancho III of Navarre, had acquired Castile and established hegemony over the Christian states. On his death in 1035 he left Navarre to his eldest son (García III) and Castile to his second son, Ferdinand, who had married Sancha, sister and heiress of Bermudo III of Leon. Ferdinand's Castilians defeated and killed Bermudo at Tamarón in 1037, and he had himself crowned emperor in the city of León in 1039. In 1054 his Castilian troops defeated and killed his elder brother, García III, at Atapuerca, and he added Navarre to his possessions. In 1062 he forced the Muslim ruler of Toledo to pay him tribute and imposed vassalage on Saragossa and Seville. He conquered Coimbra in central Portugal and laid siege to Valencia, but he failed to capture it.

He followed the custom of dividing his estates, leaving Castile to the eldest, Sancho II; Leon to the second, Alfonso VI; and Galicia to the third. The first two dispossessed the third; and, on the murder of Sancho, Alfonso VI recovered the whole, becoming emperor.

Copyright © 1994-2001 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

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Died on the day of the feast of St. John the Baptist with many manifestations of ardent piety, having laid aside his crown & royal mantle, dressed in the robe of a monk & lying on a bier covered with ashes, which was placed beforethe altar of the Basilica of San Isidoro.
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Ferdinand I (1017 – 24 June 1065), called the Great (El Magno), was the Count of Castile from his uncle's death 1029 and the King of León and King of Galicia, through his wife, after defeating his brother-in-law in 1037. He was the son of Sancho III of Navarre and Mayor of Castile, and is usually recognised as the first King of Castile. He had himself crowned Emperor of Spain in 1056.
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1º REI DE CASTELA
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=Fernando I de Leão=

Fernando I de Castela (1016 — 27 de Dezembro de 1065), cognominado o Grande ou o Magno, foi conde de Castela (1035-1065) e também rei de Leão (1037-1065), conquistou Viseu e Coimbra em 1064.

Era filho de Sancho III de Navarra (Sancho I de Castela), e da infanta Maior de Castela. De seu pai herdou o condado de Castela, e conquistou pela força das armas o reino de Leão, coroa da qual se tornou rei consorte pelo casamento com a irmã do rei Bermudo III de Leão, a rainha Sancha I de Leão.

Tal como fez seu pai, também dividiu o seu reino à hora da morte; assim, o seu primogénito, Sancho, herdou o reino principal, Castela; o resto dos seus domínios foi repartido por Afonso (Leão), Garcia (Galiza), e ainda Elvira e Urraca (a quem deixou a posse de dois mosteiros).

Fernando acabou por falecer na Festa de São João Evangelista, a 24 de Junho de 1065.

==Filhos==

# Urraca de Zamora, infanta de Leão (1033-1101), também conhecida por Urraca de Leão. foi senhora de Zamora e casada com Garcia Ordoñes, de quem teve: Osório Garcia, conde de Cabrera casado com Sancha Moniz e Garcia Ordoñez que foi conde de Nájera.
# Sancho II de Leão e Castela (1038-1072)
# Afonso VI de Leão e Castela (1040-1109)
# Elvira
# Garcia II da Galiza (1042-1090)

Fora do casamento teve:

# Múnio Fernandez (1030 -?)

''in: Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre ''
_____________________________________________________________________________

Veja também:
* Selected Families and Individuals
Conde de Castilla (1029-1035)
I Rey de Castilla (1035-1065)
Rey de León (1037-1065)
A la muerte de su cuñado Bermudo (o Vermudo) III de León, quedaron reunida lascoronas de León y Castilla, a las que se agregó Asturias.
Una vez rey de Castilla, introdujo notables modificaciones en la legislación goda, que culminaron en el Concilio de Coyanza (1050), donde se reguló también la administración judicial y la vida de los eclesiásticos. Realizó también fructíferas campañas para extender sus dominios. Conquistó las tierras del sur del Ebro pertenecientes a su hermano García IV, de Navarra; aprovechando las disensiones que minaba el califato de Córdoba, combatió a os moros y conquistó Badajoz y otras comarcas vecinas y sometió a su vasallaje a los emires de Zaragoza y de Toledo en 1057. En 1064 se rindió Coimbra, llegando su dominio hasta el Mondego, y poco después marchó con sus ejércitos hasta Valencia, siendo ésta la primera vez que los castellanos pudieron llegar hasta el Mediterráneo. Sintiendo seriamente lesionada su salud, decidió regresa a León, donde murió crisitanamente, en medio de la consideración de sus súbditos, que le dieron elcalificativo de Magno. Sus estados fueron repartidos entre sus hijos Sancho, Alfonso y García.
SOURCE NOTES:
LUH6/1823 www.dcs.hull.ac.uk/cgi-bin/gedlkup/n=royal?royal07768
RESEARCH NOTES:
King of Leon (1038-1065), Count of Castile (1029-). United Leon w/Castile
1037.
KING OF CASTILE 1035-1065; KING OF LEON 1037-1065
Fernando I de León y Castilla, (Fernando Sánchez) llamado "El Magno" o "El Grande" (c. 1010 - León, 27 de diciembre de 1065) fue rey de León desde el año 1037, tras la derrota de Bermudo III en la batalla de Tamarón, hasta su muerte. Fue ungido c
omo tal el 22 de junio de 1038.

Era hijo de Sancho Garcés III, llamado "El Mayor", rey de Pamplona, y de Doña Muniadona, hermana de García Sánchez de Castilla, del cual heredó Fernando el Condado de Castilla en 1029. Tradicionalmente se le ha considerado el primer Rey de Castil
la y fundador de la monarquía castellana, y muchos historiadores siguen manteniendo esta tesis. No obstante, parte de la historiografía más actual considera que Fernando no fue rey de Castilla.1
Tabla de contenidos
ocultar

* 1 Vida
o 1.1 Conde de Castilla
o 1.2 El trono leonés
o 1.3 La guerra con Navarra
o 1.4 Reorganización del reino
o 1.5 Política exterior
* 2 Muerte
* 3 Matrimonio y descendencia
* 4 Referencias
o 4.1 Bibliografía
o 4.2 Notas

Vida editar

Conde de Castilla editar

El futuro Fernando I de León nació hacia 1010 ó 1012, como segundo vástago de Sancho III el Mayor, rey de Pamplona, por entonces entregado a aumentar sus estados a expensas de sus vecinos. Cuando el conde Sancho de Castilla falleció en 1017, dejó
por heredero a García, un niño de siete años, lo que dio inicio a un período turbulento para el condado castellano. Alfonso V de León recobró las tierras comprendidas entre el Cea y el Pisuerga, conquistadas años atrás por Sancho, en tanto que S
ancho el Mayor intervino para proteger a su joven cuñado, aprovechando para apoderarse de varias plazas fronterizas.

Llegado a la mayoría de edad, en 1027, García pretendió estrechar lazos casándose con Doña Sancha, hermana del joven rey de León, Bermudo III. Sin embargo, fue asesinado en 1029 por los hijos del conde de Vela, huidos de Castilla.Los leoneses vi
eron en esta muerte la mano del rey de Pamplona, y los castellanos una conjura leonesa. En todo caso, Sancho Garcés salió favorecido del magnicidio: al no tener hijos el difunto García, la esposa de Sancho legó el condado de Castilla a su segundo
génito Fernando, reservando Pamplona para el primogénito García.

Fernando casó en 1032 con Sancha, la prometida de su difunto tío, obteniendo como dote las tierras comprendidas entre los ríos Cea y Pisuerga. En 1037, Bermudo III tomó por mujer a Jimena, hermana del difunto conde García, y reclamó las dichas ti
erras, lo que condujo a la guerra entre ambos cuñados. Un año después de la batalla de Tamarón (1037), en la que encontró la muerte Bermudo III, Fernando se corona rey de León (1038) Algunos autores consideran que fue entonces cuando el conde Fer
nando cambió su título por el de "rey de Castilla", aunque sólo aparezca así intitulado en uno de los 24 diplomas que se conservan de su reinado y la historiografía medievalista española actual considere que el primer rey de Castilla fue su hijo
mayor, Sancho.

El trono leonés editar

El conflicto se dilucidó en la batalla de Tamarón, el 4 de septiembre de 1037. Las tropas castellanas venían reforzadas por el ejército del rey García de Pamplona. Bermudo, con el ímpetu propio de su edad, picó espuelas a su caballo Pelagiolo y s
e introdujo en las filas enemigas, donde fue muerto atravesado por una lanza castellana. Los leoneses trasladaron su cuerpo a León y lo depositaron, junto a los de sus padres, en el panteón de la iglesia de San Juan.

Al morir Bermudo sin descendencia, era su hermana Sancha, esposa de Fernando, su sucesora en el trono. Sin embargo, los leoneses tardaron algún tiempo en aceptar a los nuevos monarcas. Durante meses el conde Fernando Flaínez (tío de Rodrigo Díaz
de Vivar según la teoría de Margarita Torres2 ), se negó a entregar la ciudad a quien consideraba un usurpador, si no un asesino. Según la Crónica Silense, Fernando llegó desde Galicia, posiblemente después de someter a los magnates gallegos. Fi
nalmente, tras segurar su posición en la Curia Regia, Fernando y su esposa entraron pacíficamente en León, y "en la era de M.LXX.VI a X de las kalendas de julio (22 de junio de 1038) fue consagrado don Fernando en la iglesia de Santa María de Leó
n y ungido rey por Servando, obispo de feliz recordación de dicha iglesia".

La misma crónica asegura que en los dieciséis primeros años de su reinado no pudo hacer incursiones contra los mahometanos, ocupado en someter a la nobleza del reino. Ello es confirmado por la Crónica najerense:

"Ocupado durante dieciséis años en resolver los conflictos internos de su reino y en domar el feroz talante de algunos de los magnates, ninguna incursión fuera de sus fronteras pudo emprender contra los enemigos exteriores".

Confirmó los nuevos fueros de León, otorgados por su suegro, Alfonso V, mandó seguir observando el código visigótico como ley fundamental del Reino leonés, y se adaptó a los usos y costumbres de su nuevo reino, seguramente influido por su esposa
la reina Sancha.

La guerra con Navarra editar
Artículo principal: Batalla de Atapuerca
La ruptura entre Fernando I y García III:

La buena administración del reino del rey Fernando, con la educación de sus hijos y su legislación y ejército, lo hizo próspero y poderoso. Entonces fue cuando surgió la envidia de su hermano García, nacida por codiciar esa opulencia.
Fernando, que era en todo tranquilo y sosegado, con un natural benigno y piedad sólida, parecía dispuesto en su interior a tolerar los disimulas de la envidia de su hermano. Por eso, cuando aquél enferma en Nájera, corre a visitarlo con su frater
no corazón conmovido, y cuando estaba a su lado, se entera de una conjura para aprisionarle usando de concertadas insidias, lo que impidió el temor a llevarlas a cabo. Fernando puede volver rápidamente a su patria.
En caso contrario, pasó después que, enfermo Fernando, el rey García fue a verle con humildad, ya buscando perdón por su gran crimen o bien por urdir otro mal hecho. Yo estimo que fue máspara fraguar otro atentado que para atenderal hermano enf
ermo por lo que fue a verle García, con el fin de adueñarse él solo del reino, y que realmente deseaba a Fernando una dolencia que le alejase para siempre de este mundo, que así discurrenen ocasiones las ansiosas mentes de los reyes. Cuando se p
ercató de todo esto el rey Fernando, movido por la ira, dispuso que arrestasen a García en Cea. Logró éste evadirse con algunos de sus hombres de guerra y desde entonces y con gran furia buscó ya abiertamente la guerra, ansioso desangre de su he
rmano, y comenzó a devastar todas las fronteras que están a su alcance.
Crónica silense

A los dieciséis años de reinado, Fernando hubo de hacer frente a la guerra contra su hermano mayor, García III de Pamplona. Fernando y García llevaban años disputándose los territorios que su padre había segregado de Castilla y anexionado a Navar
ra (La Bureba, Castilla Vieja, Trasmiera, Encartaciones y los Montes de Oca), realizando constantes incursiones. Las crónicas, claramente partidistas, hacen caer exclusivamente sobre el navarro la responsabilidad del conflicto: estando García enf
ermo en Nájera, fue a consolarle el rey leonés, que, sospechando de su hermano, evitó ser apresado y se puso a salvo. Andando el tiempo, fue el leonés quien enfermó, y su hermano mayor elque le devolvió la visita parecer inocente de toda acusaci
ón y mostrar su buena disposición, pero con el deseo de ver desaparecer al enfermo para ocupar su trono. Fernando aprovechó la ocasión para encerrarle en el castillo de Cea, de donde escapó gracias a su astucia y a la ayuda de varios cómplices.

García se preparó entonces para la guerra, y con algunos moros aliados invadió las tierras de Castilla, rechazando a los emisarios que le propusieron la paz en nombre de su hermano, "proponiéndole que cada uno viviera en paz dentro de su reino y
desistiese de decidir la cuestión por las armas pues ambos eran hermanos y cada uno debía morar pacíficamente en su casa." Así pues, Fernando le salió al encuentro con un fuerte contingente, y ambos ejércitos se encontraron en Atapuerca en 1054.

García se había establecido a mitad del valle de Atapuerca, tres leguas al este de Burgos, pero los leoneses ocuparon de noche un altozano cercano y desde él cayeron al amanecer contra los navarros y sus aliados. Fernando dio orden de coger vivo
a su hermano, porque así se lo había pedido su esposa Sancha. Pero los nobles de León, que no habían olvidado la muerte su rey Vermudo, acabaron con García. Otra versión atribuye su muerte a un grupo de sus propios súbditos, obligados a huir a C
astilla ante las humillaciones y exigencias tributarias de García.

En todo caso, el ejército de García huyó en desbandada, cayendo numerosos prisioneros en manos leonesas, entre ellos buena parte de sus contingentes moros. Fernando recuperó el cuerpo de su hermano y ordenó enterrarlo en la iglesia que éste había
fundado, Santa María de Nájera. La victoria de Fernando tuvo como consecuencia la reincorporación a Castilla de las tierras reclamadas, estableciéndose la frontera en el río Ebro e imponiéndose vasallaje a su joven sobrino SanchoIV, el nuevo re
y de Pamplona.

Reorganización del reino editar

Sometidos los condes leoneses y seguras las fronteras, Fernando I se aplicó a consolidar las estructuras e instituciones de su reino, ya pacificado. Jugó un papel fundamental en la política peninsular y en la configuración del mapa político del s
iglo XI. Asimismo, en cuanto a política legislativa, su labor fue muy importante, reformando algunos aspectos de la Curia regia leonesa, o restableciendo el derecho canónico visigodo mediante diferentes normas recogidas en el Concilio de Coyanza
(1050) ó (1055), que fue presidido por el mismo monarca.

Durante su reinado se introdujeron en la monarquía leonesa las nuevas corrientes europeistas llegadas a la Península Ibérica a través de Navarra. Entre ellas destacan su relación con Cluny y algunas de las primeras manifestacionesartísticas del
nuevo arte románico en la Península Ibérica: la cripta de San Antolín de la catedral de Palencia y el Pórtico real de la Colegiata de San Isidoro de León (1063), convertida después en panteón real.

Política exterior editar

A partir de ese momento, se inició la política expansiva castellana, sobre todo hacia los territorios musulmanes meridionales, muy debilitados por la división de al-Andalus, tras la caídadel Califato Cordobés y el surgimiento de numerosos reinos
de taifas. Se reanudó así, y ya de forma definitiva y decidida, la Reconquista en la zona occidental de la Península Ibérica.

Uno de los principales resultados de la politica de Fernando I fue el sometimiento de varios de los reinos de taifas y el cobro de las parias (impuesto por la protección y por no ser atacados) a las taifas más ricas, como Toledo, Sevilla, Zaragoz
a o Badajoz. A la vez, se produjeron varios ataques y conquistas. Destacan la conquista de las plazas portuguesas de Lamego (1057) y Viseo (1058) y la toma definitiva (1060) de las de SanEsteban de Gormaz, Berlanga de Duero y demás castillos y p
lazas del río Bordecorés, en territorio del alto Duero. Asimismo, las tomas temporales de Toledo (1062) y Zaragoza (1063), y la definitiva de la estratégica Coimbra (1064), junto al río Mondego, que puso bajo el mando del conde mozárabe Sisnando
Davídiz.

Respondiendo a los pactos acordados, Fernando I envió a su hijo, el infante Sancho, en ayuda de al-Muqtadir, rey taifa de Zaragoza, cuando la plaza de Graus se vio atacada (1063) por Ramiro I de Aragón, su hermanastro, que fue derrotado y muerto.
Posteriormente, condujo una expedición de castigo al valle del Ebro (1065) con el fin de vengar una matanza de cristianos acaecida en Zaragoza y reclamar a al-Muqtadir el vasallaje y el pago de las parias, que no habían sido dadas. Tras este cas
tigo, la expedición continuó hacia Valencia, donde su rey Abd al-Malik ben Abd al-Aziz al-Muzaffar Nizam al-Dawla, tras resistir el asedio de la ciudad, plantó lucha en la batalla de Paterna, donde acabó derrotado. Al poco, Fernando I se sintió e
nfermo y ordenó la vuelta a León.

Muerte editar

Fernando I llegó a León el día de Nochebuena de 1065 y su primera visita fue para la iglesia de San Isidoro, encomendándose a los santos para que le auxiliaran en su tránsito a la otra vida. Aquella noche acompañó en el coro a losclérigos, salmo
diando los maitines en rito mozárabe, y al clarear el día de Navidad vio que la vida se le acababa. Comulgó en la Santa Misa, siguiendo el rito, bajo las dos especies, y a continuación fue llevado en brazos al lecho. Al amanecer del día 26, viend
o aproximarse su final, hizo venir a obispos, abades y clérigos, mandó que le vistieran el manto regio, le colocasen la corona y le trasladasen a la iglesia. Hincó las rodillas ante el altar con las reliquias de san Isidoro y san Vicente, y oró y
suplicó a Dios que acogiese su alma en paz:

Tuyo es el poder, tuyo es el reino, Señor. Encima estás de todos los reyes y a ti se entregan todos los reinos del cielo y la tierra. Y de ese modo el reino que de ti recibí y gobernépor el tiempo que Tú, por tu libre voluntadquisiste, te l
o reintegro ahora. Te pido que acojas mi alma, que sale de la vorágine de este mundo, y la acojas con paz.
Crónica Silense

Después se despojó de manto y corona, se tendió en el suelo y se sometió a la ceremonia de la penitencia pública, vistiendo un sayal y recibiendo la ceniza sobre su cabeza. Al mediodía del día siguiente, 27 de diciembre de 1065, festividad de san
Juan Evangelista, el Rey falleció rodeado de obispos, tras un reinado de 27 años, 6 meses y 12 días, a unos 55 años de edad, que pocos rebasaban en aquel tiempo y que el cronista juzgó "buena vejez y plenitud de días".

Fue enterrado en el Panteón real de San Isidoro que él había construido, junto a la tumba de su padre, Sancho el Mayor, Rex Pirinaeorum montium et Tolosae 3 . Sobre el cobertor de su tumba grabaron el siguiente epitafio:

"Aquí está enterrado Fernando Magno, rey de toda España, hijo de Sancho rey de los Pirineos y Tolosa. Trasladó a León los cuerpos santos de san Isidoro arzobispo, desde Sevilla, y de Vicente mártir, desde Ávila, y construyó esta iglesia de pi
edra, la que antes era de barro. Hizo tributarios suyos, con las armas, a todos los sarracenos de España.Se apoderó de Coimbra, Lamego, Viseo y otras plazas. Se adueñó por la fuerza de los reinos de García y Vermudo. Falleció el 27 de diciembre d
e (la era) 1103".

A su muerte, en vez de respetar el derecho visigodo y leonés que impedía dividir las posesiones reales entre los herederos, siguió los principios jurídicos navarros de considerar al Reinocomo un patrimonio familiar. Así, de forma similar a cómo
hiciera su padre con él y el resto de hermanos y hermanastros, repartió sus territorios entre todos sus hijos. Según su testamento: su primogénito Sancho II heredó Castilla, que se convirtió así en reino, y las parias de Zaragoza.

Fernando nunca se tituló "rey de Castilla". Castilla no era un reino y sólo aparece en un par de documentos, como de rebote, tras el título leonés.
Martínez Díez, Gonzalo

El resto de sus dominios los repartió entre los demás hijos: Alfonso recibió el reino principal y predominante, León, y las parias de Toledo García el de Galicia, el territorio portugués y las parias de Badajoz y Sevilla a sus hijas -además del s
eñorío sobre todos los monasterios del reino- Elvira le correspondió el señorío de la ciudad de Toro y a Urraca, la plaza de Zamora. Tras la guerra civil entre los hermanos, Alfonso VI seconvertiría en el primer rey de la Corona de León y Castil
lacita requerida.

Matrimonio y descendencia editar

Casó con Sancha de León, hija de Alfonso V de León y hermana de Bermudo III de León. De esta unión nacieron:

* Urraca (c. 1033 - 1101), señora de Zamora.
* Sancho (1038 - 1072), rey de Castilla como Sancho I, y de León como Sancho II (1065-1072).
* Alfonso (1040 - 1109), rey de León (1065 - 1072) y de León, Castilla y Galicia (1072-1109), como Alfonso VI.
* Elvira, señora de Toro.
* García (1042 - 1090), rey de Galicia (1066 - 1071 y 1072 - 1073).

Según la Crónica silense:

El rey Fernando educó a sus hijos e hijas instruyéndolos en primer lugar en las disciplinas liberales, que él mismo había estudiado eruditamente, y luego dispuso que sus hijos, a la edad oportuna, aprendiesen las artes ecuestres y los ejercic
ios militares y venatorios al estilo español, ya las hijas, lejos de toda ociosidad, las formó en las virtudes femeninas honestas.

Referencias editar

Bibliografía editar

* Blanco Lozano, Pilar. Colección diplomática de Fernando I (1037-1065). León: Centro de Estudios e Investigación "San Isidoro" (CSIC-CECEL) y Archivo Histórico Diocesano, 1987. ISBN 84-00-06653-7.
* Martínez Díez, Gonzalo. El Condado de Castilla (711-1065). La Historia frente a la leyenda. Valladolid, Junta de Castilla y León, 2004. ISBN 84-8718-275-8
* Sánchez Candeira, Alfonso. Castilla y León en el siglo XI. Estudio del reinado de Fernando I. Madrid: Real Academia de la Historia, 1999. 349 p. ISBN 84-89512-41-8.
* Viñayo González, Antonio. Fernando I, el Magno (1035-1065). Burgos: La Olmeda, 1999. 309 p. ISBN 84-89915-10-5.

Notas editar

1. ↑

"Podemos y debemos afirmar con absoluta certeza el hecho de que Fernando nunca fue rey de Castilla, y que ésta nunca cambió su naturaleza de condado, subordinado al rey de León,para convertirse en un reino, hasta la muerte de Fernando
I el año 1065."
(Gonzalo Martínez Díez 2004: p 713).

2. ↑ El linaje del Cid.
3. ↑ Aunque Sancho tiene otro sarcófago en Oña y su lugar último de reposo sigue siendo objeto de discusión.
Ferdinand I
http://trees.ancestry.com/rd?f=image&guid=cf365328-ad72-4328-b540-be07979753d9&tid=261097&pid=-824041224
867789476. Konge Ferdinand I SANCHOSSON av Castilla-Leon was born in 1017. He was a Konge in 1035 in Kastiljen. (20627) han var en dyktig hersker, som forbedret de gamle vestgotiske lover, reformerte klostertukten og utvidet Kastiljens makt betydelig. He was a Keiser in 1056.(20628) Over deler av Portugal og det nuværende Ny-Kastiljen utbredte han sin makt og antok 1056 keisertitel for å betegne sin overhøyhet over de andre spanske fyrster. Dermed kom hani strid med keiser Henrik III av Tyskland. Men han ødela selv Kastiljens førerstilling ved å dele sitt rike mellom sine tre sønner Sancho, Alfons og Garcia, fanske som hans far hadde gjort. Med Sancha fikk han landene mellom Pisegra og Cea. He died on 27 Dec 1065. (20629) He was married to Dronning Sancha (Beata) ALFONSDTR av Leon og Kastiljen in 1032.
Fernando I De Castilla
http://trees.ancestry.com/rd?f=document&guid=8d3f42c0-bfe5-41b7-9940-d09757cd2c54&tid=10145763&pid=-579037729
Fernando I De Castilla
http://trees.ancestry.com/rd?f=document&guid=8d3f42c0-bfe5-41b7-9940-d09757cd2c54&tid=10145763&pid=-579037729
"El Grande" REY FERNANDO I DE CASTILLA Murió in 1065 in León, España.. Rey de Castilla de León y de Navarra. Hijo segundo de Sancho III, tuvo que luchar a la muerte de este, contra Bermudo III de León, que fue vencido y muerto en Támara (1037). Confirmó y perfeccionó las leyes de los Godos, conquistó parte de Navarra a su hermano García IV y, aprovechando el desmembramiento del Califato de Córdoba, hizo a los moros una guerra encarnizada, sometiendo a su soberanía a los emires de Zaragoza y Toledo
He ruled from 1035 to 1065. He became KIng by conquering Leon and Asturias in 1037. In 1056 he declared himself Emperor of Spain, having disposed of his cousin Garcia in 1054.
Ferdinand I (1017 - 24 June 1065), called the Great (El Magno), was the Count of Castile from his uncle's death 1029 and the King of León, through his wife, after defeating his brother-in-law in 1037. He was the son of Sancho IIIof Navarre and Mayor of Castile, and is usually recognised as the first King of Castile. He had himself crowned Emperor of Spain in 1056.

Ferdinand was barely in his teens when García Sánchez, Count of Castile, was assassinated by a party of exiled Castilian noblemen as he was entering the church of John the Baptist in León, where he had gone to marry Sancha, sister of Bermudo III. In his role as feudal overlord, Sancho III of Navarre nominated his younger son Ferdinand, born to the deceased count's sister Mayor, as successor, and further arranged for Ferdinand to marry García'a intendedbride, Sancha of León.

On his father's death, Ferdinand continued as count of Castile, now recognizing the suzerainty of his brother-in-law Bermudo III, but they fell out and on 4 September 1037 Bermudo was killed in battle with Fernando at Tamarón. Ferdinand took possession of León by right of his wife, who was the heiress presumptive, and the next year had himself formally crowned king of León and Castile. He overran the Moorish section of Galicia, and set up his vassal as count in what is now northern Portugal. With northern Iberia consolidated, Ferdinand, in 1039, proclaimed himself emperor of Hispania. The use of the title was resented by the Emperor Henry III and Pope Victor II in 1055 as implying a claim to the headship of Christendom and as a usurpation of the Roman Empire. It did not, however, mean more than that the sovereign of León was the chief of the princes of the Iberian peninsula. Ferdinand's brothers GarcíaV of Navarre and Ramiro I of Aragón opposed his power, but were both killed in ensuing battles, leaving Ferdinand preeminent.

Ferdinand died on the feast of Saint John the Baptist, 24 June 1065, in León, with many manifestations of ardent piety, having laid aside his crown and royal mantle, dressed in the robe of a monk and lying on a bier covered with ashes, which was placed before the altar of the Basilica of San Isidoro. At his death, Ferdinand divided up his kingdom between his three sons: Sancho, who received Castile; Alfonso, who received León; and Garcia, who received Galicia. His two daughters each received cities: Elvira received Toro and Urraca received Zamora. By giving them his dominion, he wanted them to abide by the split in the kingdom and respect his wishes. However, Sancho (born 1032), being the oldest, believed that he deserved more of the kingdom, and therefore sought to gain possession of the divided parts of the kingdom that had been given to his siblings.

References
This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
Conde de Castilla (1029-1035)
I Rey de Castilla (1035-1065)
Rey de León (1037-1065)
A la muerte de su cuñado Bermudo (o Vermudo) III de León, quedaron reunida lascoronas de León y Castilla, a las que se agregó Asturias.
Una vez rey de Castilla, introdujo notables modificaciones en la legislación goda, que culminaron en el Concilio de Coyanza (1050), donde se reguló también la administración judicial y la vida de los eclesiásticos. Realizó también fructíferas campañas para extender sus dominios. Conquistó las tierras del sur del Ebro pertenecientes a su hermano García IV, de Navarra; aprovechando las disensiones que minaba el califato de Córdoba, combatió a os moros y conquistó Badajoz y otras comarcas vecinas y sometió a su vasallaje a los emires de Zaragoza y de Toledo en 1057. En 1064 se rindió Coimbra, llegando su dominio hasta el Mondego, y poco después marchó con sus ejércitos hasta Valencia, siendo ésta la primera vez que los castellanos pudieron llegar hasta el Mediterráneo. Sintiendo seriamente lesionada su salud, decidió regresa a León, donde murió crisitanamente, en medio de la consideración de sus súbditos, que le dieron elcalificativo de Magno. Sus estados fueron repartidos entre sus hijos Sancho, Alfonso y García.
1 NAME el Major //
2 GIVN el Major
2 SURN
2 NICK el Major

Timeline Fernando I 'el Magno' (Rey de Castilla y León) de Navarra rey de Castilla

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