genealogyonline

Stambomen Koé-Muller » Saint Olga Helena of Russia Grand Duchess of Kiev (Igorevich) Grand Grand Duchess of Kiev (± 890-969)

Personal data Saint Olga Helena of Russia Grand Duchess of Kiev (Igorevich) Grand Grand Duchess of Kiev 


Ancestors (and descendant) of Saint Olga Helena of Russia Grand Duchess of Kiev (Igorevich) Grand Grand Duchess of Kiev


Household of Saint Olga Helena of Russia Grand Duchess of Kiev (Igorevich) Grand Grand Duchess of Kiev

She is married to Igor I grootvorst van Kiev Varangian Ruler of Kievan Rus' (Russia) of Kiev.

They got married.


Child(ren):

  1. Sviatoslav I Igorevich Great Prince Swatowlaw I Igorjowisch Igorevich grootvorst van Kiew of Kiev  942-972 


Notes about Saint Olga Helena of Russia Grand Duchess of Kiev (Igorevich) Grand Grand Duchess of Kiev

http://www.geni.com/people/Saint-Olga-Helena-of-Kiev/6000000005406862960?through=6000000000420341047

Olga Helena of Russia Grand Duchess of Kiev (Igorevich), Grand Grand Duchess
Russisch: ????? (????????) ????? of Russia Grand Duchess of Kiev (Igorevich), Grand Grand Duchess
Begraafplaats:????, Ukraine
Geboren:circa 890
??????, Pskov, Russia
Overleden:11 Juli 969 (75-83)
Kiev, Kiev city, Kyiv city, Ukraine
Naaste Familie:
Daughter of ???? ??????? ????? en no name
Wife of Igor I. grootvorst van Kiev, Varangian Ruler of Kievan Rus' (Russia)
Mother of Sviatoslav I Great Prince of Kiev

Den kraftfulla furstinnan Olga från det forntida Ryssland är verklig.

Ryssarna har gjort henne till helgon och vallfärdar till hennes stad Pskov, men hon var nog så blodtörstig.

Olga, som var en enkel färjeflicka utanför Pskov i nordvästra Rus, giftes bort redan vid tio års ålder med den svenskättade rusiske fursten Igor. Han var son till den legendariske Rurik, som år 862 skall ha kommit från svearnas land för att härska över de inbördes kämpande stammarna i Rus.

När Igor blivit stor nog att ta över makten i riket från sin förmyndare, fick han snart smak på det där att ta ut skatt.

Norr om Kiev levde drevljanerna, ett folk han försökte beskatta två gånger. Denna girighet blev hans död och Olga blev änka. Då försökte drevljanerna få henne att gifta sig med deras egen furste, något hon låtsades gå med på. Därefter lät hon i rask följd döda de drevljaner som försökte förhandla med henne.
Den första gruppen öste hon jord över och begravde levande i båt. Den andra gruppen ställde hon i ordning en bastu åt och sa åt dem att de skulle talas vid när de lögat sig. Och medan de arma drevljanerna satt därinne låste hon bastun och brände dem inne. Efter denna föga välkomnande gest sände hon bud till drevljanerna och sa att hon var på väg till dem, men att hon ville dricka gravöl över sin man när hon anlände. Drevljanerna samlade ihop stora mängder mjöd, och Olga tog med sig en mindre hird och drog iväg obeväpnade till makens grav och begrät honom. Sedan befallde hon sina män att kasta upp en stor gravhög över honom och lät ställa fram gravölet. Drevljanerna lät sig väl smaka, men började undra var deras hird som kommit för att hämta henne höll hus någonstans. Hon svarade att männen var på väg och lät sina tjänare servera drevljanerna ännu mera öl.

När de sedan var ordentligt druckna gick hon åt sidan och befallde sin män att hugga ned dem. På detta sätt miste 5000 drevljaner huvudet, men Olga var ingalunda nöjd. Hon rustade sin krigare och tillsammans med sin son Svjatoslav gick hon in i drevljanernas land och krävde skatt av dem. När hon anlände till staden Iskorosten, den stad vars invånare dräpt maken, fortsatte hon sitt bedrägliga beteende. Hon påstod sig behöva så mycket skatt eftersom hon redan hämnats sin man och sa sig vara nöjd med tre duvor och tre sparvar från varje gård. Lättade över denna ringa skattebörda gjorde drevljanerna som hon sa och medan alla i staden gladde sig åt att de sluppit så lindrigt undan, förberedde Olga nästa drag. Denna gång bad hon varje krigare binda fast kådbitar inlindade i små tygstycken vid varje fågel. När det blev mörkt släppte hon lös fåglarna. Duvorna och sparvarna flög till sina nästen, duvorna till duvslagen och sparvarna under taksparrarna, och så antändes duvslagen, förrådsbodarna, ladorna och höskullarna, och det fanns inte en gård där det inte brann, och det var omöjligt att släcka. Därefter intog hon staden. Denna brände hon sedan ned, varefter hon tog stadens äldste till fånga och i övrigt även slog ihjäl några, medan hon gav andra som trälar till sina män. Resten lät hon bli kvar för att betala skatt. Olga finns omnämnd i både ryska och grekiska källor. Utanför Pskov återfinns hon såväl i bygdens namnflora som med minnesmärken i sten, och i Nestorkrönikan från 1100-talet omtalas att hennes släde tagits om hand och fanns kvar i staden. Olga lät kejsaren Konstantinos i Konstantiopel döpa sig och fick namnet Helena. Bodde sedan hos sonen Svjatoslav i Kiev, vilken dock förblev hedning i hela sitt liv. (Forntida kvinnor, sid 102, Catharina Ingeman-Sundberg)

Olga är samma namn som Helga. Furstinnan ifråga, Igors efterlämnade maka, vistas en tid i Konstaniopel och låter döpa sig där. (En nordisk kronologi sid 63, Henrikson)

Efter maken Igors död år 945 regererade hon ett tiotal år som furstinna i Kiev, eftersom sonen Svjatoslav fortfarande var minderårig. Besökte Konstantiopel år 957 och lät sig döpas och få undervisning i den kristna tron. Efter sin död har hon firats som helgon med sin festdag den 11 juli. (Vikingar i österled, Mats G. Larsson och Bra Böcker)

http://www.espell.se/saga/pd17cbc57.html

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

--------------------

--------------------

--------------------

http://www.rulex.ru/01150113.htm

--------------------

Fyrstinne Olga den Hellige av Pskov. Født 890. Død 969. Hun var gift med Storfyrste Igor I av Kiev. Født 875. Død 945. De hadde sønnen:

1. Storfyrste Svjatoslav I av Kiev. Født omkring 942. Død 972.

Fyrstinne Olga var Regent av Kiev 945 - 962.

Etter at Olgas mann ble myrdet i 945, førte hun i 10 år Russlands regjering for sin umyndig sønn Svjatoslav. Deretter dro hun til Konstantinopel og lot seg døpe i 957. I dåpen fikk hun navnet Helena. Hun var den første russiske fyrstinne som ble en kristen. Den greske kirken, men ikke den romerske, gjorde henne til helgen. Hennes dag er 11. juli. 1)

1). Mogens Bugge: Våre forfedre, nr. 149. Bent og Vidar Billing Hansen: Rosensverdslektens forfedre, side 90.

--------------------

Biografi

Olga var Pskov kvinna Varangian extraktion som gifte sig i framtiden Igor av Kiev, Kanske i 903. Den Nestorskrönikan ger 879 som hennes födelsedatum, vilket är ganska osannolikt, med tanke på att hennes enda son föddes troligen omkring 65 år efter detta datum. Efter Igor död, fastslog hon Kievriket som regent (945-c. 963) för sin son, Svjatoslav.

I början av sin regeringstid, tillbringade Olga stora ansträngningar för att hämnas hennes makes död i händerna på DrevliansOch lyckades slakta många av dem och interring del i en Båtgrav, Medan den fortfarande lever. Hon sägs ha skållats fångar till döds och en annan, troligen apokryfiska, berättar historien om hur hon förstörde en stad fientlig till henne. Hon begärde att varje hushåll ge henne en duva som en gåva, därefter samman brinnande papper på benen för varje duva som hon sedan ut för att flyga tillbaka till sina hem. Varje aviär brandbomber, satte eld på halmtak sina respektive hem och staden förstördes. Ännu viktigare på lång sikt, ändrade Olga systemet med hyllning insamling (poliudie) I vad som kan betraktas som den första rättsliga reformer som registrerats i Östeuropa.

Hon var den första ryska härskare att konvertera till Christianity, Antingen 945 eller 957. Ceremonier hennes formell mottagning i Konstantinopel beskrevs noggrant av kejsare Konstantin VII i sin bok De Ceremoniis. Efter hennes dop hon tog det kristna namnet Jelena, efter den regerande kejsarinnan Helena Lekapena. Slaviska Chronicles lägga apokryfiska uppgifter till kontot för hennes dop, till exempel historien om hur hon förtjust och "lura" Konstantin och hur hon avvisat hans äktenskapliga förslag. I sanning, vid tiden för hennes dop var Olga en gammal kvinna, medan Konstantin hade en fru.

Sju Latin källor dokument Olga ambassad till kejsar Otto i 959. Fortsättning av Regino av Prüm nämner att sändebuden begärde kejsaren att utse en biskop och präster för sin nation. Krönikeskrivaren anklagar sändebud av lögner, kommenterade att deras knep var utsatt inte förrän senare. Thietmar av Merseburg säger att den första ärkebiskop MagdeburgSaint Adalbert av MagdeburgInnan befordras till denna höga ranking, skickades av kejsar Otto till land Rus (Rusciae) Som en enkel biskop men utvisades av hednisk allierade Svjatoslav I. Samma data dupliceras i Annals of Quedlinburg och HildesheimBland annat.

Olga var en av de första människorna i Rus ska tillkännages en saintFör hennes insatser för att sprida den kristna religionen i landet. På grund av hennes proselytizing inflytande, Ortodoxi Parlamentet St Olga av hedersposter Isapóstolos"Lika med Apostlar". Dock har hon att konvertera Svjatoslav, Och det var kvar till sin sonson och elev Vladimir I göra Christianity varaktig statsreligion. Under sonens långvariga militära kampanjer, var hon ansvarig för Kiev, bosatt i slottet Vyshgorod tillsammans med sina barnbarn. Hon dog kort efter stadens belägring av Petjenegerna år 969

--------------------

Saint Olga ( born c. 890 died July 11, 969, Kiev) was a Pskov woman of Varangian extraction who married the future Igor of Kiev, arguably in 903. The Primary Chronicle gives 879 as her date of birth, which is rather unlikely, given the fact that her only son was probably born some 65 years after that date. After Igor's death, she ruled Kievan Rus as regent (945-c. 963) for their son, Svyatoslav.

At the start of her reign, Olga spent great effort to avenge her husband's death at the hands of the Drevlians, and succeeded in slaughtering many of them and interring some in a ship burial, while still alive. She is reputed to have scalded captives to death and another, probably apocryphal, story tells of how she destroyed a town hostile to her. She asked that each household present her with a dove as a gift, then tied burning papers to the legs of each dove which she then released to fly back to their homes. Each avian incendiary set fire to the thatched roof of their respective home and the town was destroyed. More importantly in the long term, Olga changed the system of tribute gathering (poliudie) in what may be regarded as the first legal reform recorded in Eastern Europe.

She was the first Rus ruler to convert to Christianity, either in 945 or in 957. The ceremonies of her formal reception in Constantinople were minutely described by Emperor Constantine VII in his book De Ceremoniis. Following her baptism she took the Christian name Yelena, after the reigning Empress Helena Lekapena. The Slavonic chronicles add apocryphal details to the account of her baptism, such as the story how she charmed and "outwitted" Constantine and how she spurned his matrimonial proposals. In truth, at the time of her baptism, Olga was an old woman, while Constantine had a wife.

Seven Latin sources document Olga's embassy to Emperor Otto I in 959. The continuation of Regino of Prüm mentions that the envoys requested the Emperor to appoint a bishop and priests for their nation. The chronicler accuses the envoys of lies, commenting that their trick was not exposed until later. Thietmar of Merseburg says that the first archbishop of Magdeburg, before being promoted to this high rank, was sent by Emperor Otto to the country of the Rus (Rusciae) as a simple bishop but was expelled by pagans. The same data is duplicated in the annals of Quedlinburg and Hildesheim, among others.

Olga was one of the first people of Rus to be proclaimed a saint, for her efforts to spread the Christian religion in the country. Because of her proselytizing influence, the Orthodox Church calls St. Olga by the honorific Isapóstolos, "Equal to the Apostles". However, she failed to convert Svyatoslav, and it was left to her grandson and pupil Vladimir I to make Christianity the lasting state religion. During her son's prolonged military campaigns, she remained in charge of Kiev, residing in the castle of Vyshgorod together with her grandsons. She died soon after the city's siege by the Pechenegs in 968.

--------------------

From the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy page on Russia Rurikid:

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/RUSSIA,%20Rurik.htm

Grand Prince Igor married ([930/35]) OLGA [Helga/Haelgha] --- (-969).

The Primary Chronicle records that a wife Olga was brought [to Igor] from Pskov in 903[27]. The date is clearly inconsistent with the suggested birth date of their son Sviatoslav in [935/40] as shown below.

After her husband was killed, the Derevlian Slavs proposed her marriage to their own leader Mal, but the Primary Chronicle records that Olga exacted prompt and effective revenge for her husband's death after besieging the Derevlian capital of Iskorosten[28].

Olga was regent for her son [from 945 to 964]. Her centre of power was based around Kiev where she owned two halls[29].

The Primary Chronicle records that Olga was baptised in Constantinople in [957] by the emperor (Konstantinos VII), and took the name HELENA after the mother of Emperor Konstantinos the Great[30]. She was also in contact with Emperor Otto I in 959[31].

The Primary Chronicle records that, during the invasion of the Pechenegs in 968, Olga shut herself in the city of Kiev with her grandsons Yaropolk, Oleg and Vladimir and that she died in 969[32].

She was later esteemed to be a saint, her feast day being 11 July.

Igor & his wife had one child:

Svyatoslav (b. 935/940, d. 972, killed in battle, succeeded as Grand Prince of Kiev)

From the Russian Wikipedia page on Olga (Princess of Kiev):

http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%BD%D1%8F%D0%B3%D0%B8%D0%BD%D1%8F_%D0%9E%D0%BB%D1%8C%D0%B3%D0%B0

???????????? ????? (???.) [????????]Legati Helenae reginae Rugorum, quae sub Romano imperatore Constantinopolitano Constantinopoli baptizata est, ficte, ut post clariut, ad regem venientes episcopum et presbiretos eidem genti ordinari petebant.

— Reginonis abbatis prumiensis Chronicon, cum continuatione treverensi

8.? http://www.chronologia.org/tabov/tab-22.doc

In English:

Princess Olga (Baptized as Yelena, d. 11 July 969), was a princess who ruled Kiev Rus after the death of her husband Igor Rurikovich as regent in 945 until approximatly 960. (English Wikipedia says that she is also called Olga Prekrasa, or Olga the Beauty, or in Old Norse: Helga, birth date estimated as 890, and rule date as being 945-963. She is described as a Pskov woman of Varangian extraction who married the future Igor of Kiev arguably in 903. The Primary Chronicle gives 879 as her date of birth, which is rather unlikely given the fact that her son was probably born some 65 years after that date.)

In the Holy Russian Orthodox Church, she was the first of Russia's rulers to have adopted Christianity, before the baptism of Rus. She was the first Russian saint.

After about 140 years after her death, an old Russian Chronicler expressed the attitude of the Russian people to the first baptized ruler of Kiev Rus: "She was the precursor of a Christian land, as Lucifer (the morning star) before the sun, as the dawn before morning. She shines like the moon in night, and she shone among the heathens, like a pearl in the mud."

Biography

Origin

According to the earliest of ancient chronicles "Tales of Bygone Years," Olga was born in Pskov. The Life of St. Princess Olga says that she was born in the village of Vybutu in the principality of Pskov, 12 kilometers from the city up the Velikoy River. The names of Olga's parents did not survive, for they were not versed in the "language of the Normans". According to the Varangians, origin is confirmed by the name, which should have a matching name in Old Norse, like Helga.

The presence of what are presumed Scandinavians is marked by areas of a number of archeological finds, possibly dating back to the first half of the 10th century. On the other hand, in the annals, the name Olga is often referred to the Slavic name "Volga." It is well known that there is an Old Bohemian name Olha.

The Typographical Chronical (from the end of the 15th century) and the later Piskarevsky Chronicle pass along a rumor that Olga was the daughter of Oleg the Wise, who became ruler of Kiev Rus as a trustee of the young Igor Rurikovich. It was Oleg that married Igor and Olga.

The so-called Ioachim Chronicle, the reliability of which is questioned by historians, reports an aristocratic Slavic origin of Olga: "When Igor matured, it was Oleg that gave him a wife from the Izborsk, from the Family Gostomyslov, and Oleg renamed her and called her in his name Olga. There have been more wives of Igor, but Olga, was, because of her wisdom, more respected."

Bulgarian historians have put forward a version where Princess Olga has Bulgarian roots, relying mainly on the message of the New Vladimirsky Chronicle , and translating from the Chronicle the name of Pleskov, which means not from Pskov, but from Pliska, the capital of Bulgaria at the time. The names of both cities is really the same in ancient Slavic transcriptions of some texts that served as a basis for the author of the New Vladimirsky Chronicle to so translate her name. The Tale of Bygone Years places Olga's origins in Pskov rather than Bulgaria, as the spelling of Pleskov to denote Pskov had long since been out of use.

Marriage and the beginning of her rule

In the Tale of Bygone Years, Oleg the Wise married off Igor Rurikovich when he embarked on self-rule in 912, with his marriage to Olga in 903. This date is called into question since, according to the Ipatievsky list, their son Svyatoslav was born only in 942.

It is possible to resolve this contradiction through the later Ustyug Chronicle and Novgorod Chronicle, as Dubrovsky reports a 10-year-old Olga at the time over her wedding. This is contrary to legends contained in Educational books (from the second half of the 1th century), about a chance encounter with Igor at a crossing near Pskov.

The prince was hunting in those places. While crossing the river by boat, he noticed that the ferryman was a young girl dressed in male attire. Igor immediately "burned with desire" and began to molest her, but he received a response worthy of a rebuke: "What confuses me, Prince, your indiscreet words? Even though I am young and a base thing, and am the only one here, you should know that it is better for me to jump into the river than endure this."

A random acquaintance of Igor remembered her when it came time to look for a bride, and Oleg sent for her. Igor didn't want any other for his wife.

The Novgorod First Chronicle contains the most unaltered information from the Primary Chronicle of the 11th century, and has a message about the marriage of Olga and Igor that was undated from the earliest chroniclers of the Old Russian Chronlce, carrying no information on the date of the wedding. It is likely that the 903 date appearing in the Times of Bygone Years appeared in text at a later time, when the monk Nestor was trying to put ancient Russian history into chronological order for the first time. After the wedding, the name of Olga is not mentioned again for another 40 years, within the Russian-Byzantine agreement of 944.

According to historical records, in 945, Prince Igor was killed by the Drevlyans when he sought tribute from them twice in one month. His successor Svyatoslav was then only 3 years old, so the de facto ruler of Kiev Rus in 945 was Olga. The army of Igor obeyed her, recognizing Olga as the only legitimate heir to the throne. The decisive course of action that the Princess took against the Drevlyans could only encourage the vengeful Kievans toward her favor.

Revenge against the Drevlyans

The Drevlyans, after killing Igor, sent to his widow, Olga, a matchmaker calling for her to marry Prince Mal. The Princess consistently corresponded with the Drevlyan elders, which then led to the surrender of the Drevlyan people. The Old Russian Chronicle details an account of Olga's revenge for the death of her husband:

1. Carrying a message to Princess Olga, a group of matchmakers, 20 distinguished men, arrived in a boat, which was then carried by a Kiev mob and thrown into a deep pit in the courtyard of Olga. The ambassador of the matchmakers were burned alive. "Olga looked at them from the women's quarters and asked 'Are you satisfied with this honor?' And they cried: 'Oh, this is worse for us than Igor's death!'"

2. Olga asked, as a show of respect, that the Drevlyans send to her new ambassadors of the best men, with which they readily complied. The embassy of the chief of the Drevlyans was burned to death while in a bathhouse, where he was to wash in preparation for meeting the princess.

3. Revenge: The Princess, with a small retinue, arrived in the land of the Drevlyans, ostensibly to follow the custom of celebrating a funeral feast given for her husband. During the feast, Olga ordered an attack. The Chronicle reported 5,000 were killed.

4. Vengeance: In 946, Olga came out with her army to march on the Drevlyans. In the First Novgorod Chronicle, the Kiev army had several distinguished men fighting for them who subdued the rebels. Olga walked around the Drevlyan land, extracted tribute, and then returned to Kiev. In the Tales of Bygone Years, the chronicler highlighted the siege of the Drevlyan capital Korosten. After failing to take the city over the course of the summer, Olga had the city burned with the help of birds, which she ordered to tie incendiaries to them. Some defenders of Korosten were killed, others submitted. A similar legend is given about the burning of a city with the help of birds in the Saxo Grammaticus (12th century), which is a compilation of oral traditions about the exploits of Danish Vikings and the historian Snorri Sturluson.

(English Wikipedia says: At the start of her reign, Olga spent a great effort to avenge her husband's death at the hands of the Drevylans, and succeeded in slaughtering many of them and interring some in a ship burial while still alive. She is reputed to have scalded captives to death, and another probably apocryphal story tells of how she destroyed a town hostile to her. She asked that each household present her with a dove as a gift, then tied burning papers to the legs of each dove which she then released to fly back to their homes. Each avian incendiary set fire to the thatched roof of their respective home and the town was destroyed. More importantly, in the long term, Olga changed the system of tribute gathering, or poliudie, in what may be regarded as the first legal reform recorded in Eastern Europe.)

After the massacre of the Drevlyans, Olga ruled in Kiev Rus until the majority of Svyatoslav, but then afterward remained de facto ruler, as her son was absent most of the time on military campaigns.

The Rule of Olga

Having conquered the Drevlyans, Olga in 947 went to Novgorod and Pskov, establishing quit-rents and tributes, and then returned to her son Svyatoslav in Kiev. Olga had installed "pogostov" - centers of trade and exchange, where more orderly collection of taxes could occur, and then built temples for her various parishes. Prince Olga marked the start of Stone Town planning in Russia (the first brick buildings in Kiev were the city palace and country mansion of Olga), with attention given to the lands subordinated to Kiev - Novgorod, Pskov, those located along the Desna River, etc.

In 945, Olga undertook a major transformation in the management of the principality - setting an exact charge for tributes paid to Kiev ("personal collection of tribute") - "lessons" (or "rents") and frequency for collection ("rules"). Kiev dependencies were divided into administrative units, each of which was given a princely administrator (a "Tyun").

On the Pskov River, where she was born, Olga, according to legend, founded the city of Pskov. In a place where in a vision she saw three luminous rays from the sky, the Grand Princess erected the temple of the Holy Trinity.

Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogentius, in his work "On Control of the Empire" (chapter 9), written in the year 949, mentions that "coming from Russia to Constantinople were monoksil to serve as Nemogards, in which was Svendoslav, son of Ingor, Archon of the Rus. From this short message, it indicates that in 949, Igor took power in Kiev. It is more likely that Olga left her son to represent her in the northern part of the kingdom. It is also possible that Constantine had information from unreliable or outdated sources.

The next act of Olga was noted in the Tales of Bygone years as her baptism in 955 in Constantinople. Upon her return to Kiev, Olga, who adopted the baptismal name of Yelena, tried to encourage Svyatoslav to adopt Christianity, but "he did not even listen to this. But if someone was going to be baptized, it was not forbidden, though he mocked those."

Moreover, Svyatoslav angrily rejected his mother on this, partly for fear of losing respect from his soldiers.

In 957, Olga traveled with a large embassy to pay an official visit to Constantinople, an event described for its court ceremonies under Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus in the book "De Ceremoniis Aulae Byzantinae." The Emperor called Olga the ruler (Arkhontissa) of Russia, while Svyatoslav (in the description of the suite, he is listed as "the person Svyatoslav") is mentioned without a title. Apparently, the visit to the Byzantine Empire did not bring about the desired results, as the Tales of Bygone Years reports that Olga and the Byzantine ambassadors were cold to each other in Kiev shortly after the visit. On the other hand, the Emperor's historian Theophanes mentions that in the story of the retaking of Crete from the Arabs during the reign of Romanos II (959-963), the Rus were included in the Byzantine army.

It is simply not known when Svyatoslav started his own rule. The Tales of Bygone Years announces his first military campaign in 964.

Western European historian Regino of Prum reports that in 959: "The came to the King (Otto I the Great), as after it turned out, for false purposes, after Yelena, Queen of Rugova, went to the Emperor of Constantinople Roman to be baptized in Constantinople and asked to dedicate to her people priests and bishops." (From the Reginonis abbatis prumiensis Chronicon, cum continuatione treverensi)

Thus, in 959, Olga (baptized Yelena) is officially regarded as the ruler of Kiev Rus.

She tried to convince the pagan Svyatoslav at age 18 to become a Christian, and a mission sent by Otto I to Kiev failed, as was reported by Regino of Prum: "In 962, Svyatoslav turned back Adalbert, who was sent by the bishops of Rugam because he did not have time for anything that, for what was sent, would be an effort in vain. On the way back, some of his companions were killed, and he himself with great difficulty, barely escaped."

The start of the rule of Svyatoslav was conventional enough, Russian Chronicles say, in that it began immediately after the death of Igor.

Svyatoslav was all the time in military campaigns against the neighbors of Kiev Rus, while his mother stood in for him as administrator of the state. In 968, when the Pechenegs first raided Russian lands, Olga (who had been staying at the castle of Vyshgorod together with her grandchildren) took Svyatoslav's children with her to the protection of Kiev. Returning from Bulgaria, Svyatoslav lifted the siege, but did not stay long in Kiev.

When in the next year, he prepared to return to Pereyaslavets, Olga stopped him: "You see, I'm sick; where do you want to go to get away from me?" She was already hurting. And she said: "When you bury me, go where you like." Three days later, Olga was dead, and her son and grandchildren wept over her in lamentation, as did all the people, and they buried her in the location she desired. Olga instructed her survivors to not commit to her a feast, as was done with a priest - the one and buried, the Blessed Olga."

The monk Jacob, composing in the 11th century remembrances and praise of the Prince of Russia Volodimir said the exact date of death of Princess Olga was July 11, 969.

The Baptism of Olga and church worship

Princess Olga became the first ruler of Kiev Rus who was baptized, and thus predetermined the acceptance of Christianity throughout the Eastern Slav people.

The date and circumstances of her baptism remain unclear. According to the Tales of Bygone Years, it occurred in 955 in Constantinople, with Olga personally baptized by the Emperor Constantine with Patriarch Theophylact (d. 956): "And she was called by her baptismal name Yelena, as the ancient queen - mother of Constantine (Empress Helena Lekapena)."

The Tales of Bygone Years describes the circumstances of her baptism story and how the wise Olga outwitted the Byzantine king. Anyone surprised by her intelligence and beauty, with whom the Emperor wanted to take to marry. But the princess said that it was not proper for Christians and pagans to be wed. She was christened then by the Emperor and the Patriarch. When the Emperor again harassed the princess, she pointed to the fact that she was now his goddaughter. So he richly endowed her and sent her home.

(The English Wikipedia article says: The Slavonic Chronicles add apocryphal details to the account of her baptism, such as the story of how she charmed and "outwitted" Constantine and how she spurned matrimonial proposals. In truth, at the time of her baptism, Olga was an old woman, while Constantine had a wife.)

From the Byzantine sources, it's only recorded that Olga went to Constantinople. Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus describe it in detail in his book "De Ceremoniis Aulae Byzantinae" without specifying the year of the event. But he said that the date of official reception: Friday 9 September (on the occasion of arrival of Olga) and Sunday, October 18. This combination corresponds with the years 957 and 946.

Note the lengthy stay of Olga in Constantinople. In the reception, Emperor Constantine called himself Basil, and Roman a Basilets. It is known that Roman was the son of Constantine, and became a formal co-ruler with his father in 945. According to historian Litavrin, the visit, described by Constantine, was in fact held in 946, and the baptism took place during the second visit to Constantinople in 954 or 955. The reference to the admission of Roman's children favors 957, which is considered by many to be the date for the visit of Olga during her baptism.

But Constantine nowhere mentions Olga's baptism (as well as the objectives of her visit), and moreover, in the retinue of the princess was a priest named Gregory, which indicates what some historians believe that Olga was already baptized when she came to Constantinople. In this case, the question follows of why Constantine called the princess by her pagan name, and not Yelena, as did Regino of Prum.

Another, later Byzantine source (11th century) tells of the baptism in Constantinople in the 950s: "And the wife of the Russian archon, named Elga, had once again sailed to Constantinople after his death, against the Romans. Having been baptized and having made the choice in favor of the true faith, she returned home."

Historian Regino of Prum spoke about the baptism above with reference to the name of Romanus who favored her baptism in 957. Regino of Prum can be considered reliable, because under that name, it is believed that the author was actually Bishop Adalbert, who led the unsuccessful mission to Kiev in 961 and gained the information firsthand. (This assertion is not supported by the English Wikipedia page on Regino of Prum, but does note that Archbishop Adalbert of Magdeburg worked on some of the same material as Regino, such as the Chronicon, a history of the world during the Christian era to 906.)

According to most sources, Princess Olga was baptized in Constantinople in autumn 957, and that he baptized her, probably with Roman II (Son and co-ruler with Emperor Constantine), and Patriarch Polyeuctus. The decision to adopt the faith Olga had taken beforehand, although the chronicle perpetuates the legend that it was a spontaneous decision.

Nothing is known about the people who spread Christianity to Rus. We know it was the Bulgarian Slavs (Bulgaria was baptized in 865) as the early chronicles and ancient texts are influenced by the Bulgarian language. The first penetration of Christianity into Kiev Rus is seen in the St. Elias Cathedral in Kiev, which was built in accordance with a Russian-Byzantine agreement in 944.

(English Wikipedia says that 7 Latin sources documented Olga's embassy to Emperor Otto I in 959. Regino of Prum mentioned that the envoys requested the Emperor appoint a bishop and priests for their nation. The chronicler accused the envoys of lies, commenting that their trick was not exposed until later. Thietmar of Merseburg said that the first Archbishop of Magdeburg, St. Adalbert of Magdeburg, before being promoted to this high rank, was sent by Emperor Otto to the country of the Rus (Rusciae) as a simple bishop, but was expelled by pagan allies of Svyatoslav. The same data is duplicated in the annals of Quedlinburg and Hildesheim, among others.)

In 969, Olga was buried according to Christian rites. In 1007, her grandson, Prince Vladimir the Baptist moved the relics of the saints, including Olga, to the Church of the Holy Virgin in Kiev. In the Life of Jacob, the monk said that the body of the blessed princess was saved from decay. It is said that it "glowed like the sun" and the body could be seen through a window in a stone coffin, which the ability to see was supposedly a sign for any true Christian believer. Many found it healing. Still others saw only a coffin.

Most likely during the reign of Vladimir, Princess Olga began to be revered as a saint. This is evidenced by the transfer of relics to his church and a description of miracles, as described by the monk Jacob in the 11th century. The day of the memory of St. Olga (Yelena) was observed on July 11, at least in the Desyatina Cathedral. However, official canonization (church-wide celebration) only occurred apparently, later in the middle of the 13th century. Her name soon became a baptismal font, in particular for the Czechs.

In 1547 Olga was canonized an "isaspostolos" (equal to the Apostles) saint. This honor was awarded to only five women saints in Christian history (Mary Magdalena, "Pervomuchenitsa" Thekla, the martyr Apfiya, Queen Yelena of Georgia, and the teacher Nina).

The feast in memory of Apostolic St. Olga is celebrated in the Russian Orthodox Church on July 11 Julian Calendar, and in Catholic and other Western churches on July 24 Gregorian.

Olga is revered as the patron of widows and Christian converts.

Historiography of Olga

Basic information on the life of Olga is deemed reliable, and are contained in the Tale of Bygone Years and the hagiographic work by monk Jacob "Remembrance and Praise of the Prince of Russia Volodimer," and the composition of Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus "De Ceremoniis Aulae Byzantinae." Other sources review additional information about Olga, but their accuracy cannot be accurately determined.

The Ioachim Chronicle reports on the execution by Svyatoslav of his only brother Gleb for his Christian beliefs in the Russian-Byzantine wars of 968-971. Gleb could be the son of Igor and Olga, or Igor and another wife, since the same chronicle reports the presence of other wives for Igor. The Orthodox faith says of Gleb that he was the youngest son of Olga.

Medieval Czech historian Tomas Pescina, in his Latin work "Mars Moravicus" (1677) spoke of a certain Russian Prince Oleg who in 940 was the last king of Moravia, and who was expelled by the Hungarians in 949. According to Tomasz Pechiney, the Moravian Oleg was a brother of Olga.

The existence of a blood relative for Olga, called anepsiem, was mentioned by Constantine Porphyrogenitus in the transfer of her entourage during the 957 visit to Constantinople. Anepsy meant perhaps a nephew, but also could mean a cousin.

The Memory of St. Olga

Olga is called the founder of the city of Pskov. In Pskov, there is an Olginskaya Embankment, an Olginsky Bridge, and a Chapel of St. Olga.

Orders:

1. The Medal of St. Princess Olga was established by Emperor Nicholas II in 1915.

2. The Order of Princess Olga is a State Award of Ukraine from 1997.

3. The Order of St. Grand Princess Olga is awarded by the Russian Orthodox Church.

In Kiev, Pskov, and Korosten, there are monuments to Princess Olga.

In Literature

1. Alexander Antonov's novel "Princess Olga"

2. Boris Vasiliev's "Olga, Queen of the Rus"

3. Victor Gretskov's "Princess Olga, Bulgarian Princess"

4. Michael Kazovsky's "Daughter of the Empress"

5. Alexey Karpov's "Princess Olga" (Series ZHZL) published by the Young Guard in 2009

6. Svetlana Kaidash-Lakshin "Princess Olga" (a historical novel)

Cinema

1. The Legend of Princess Olga, USSR, 1983

2. Saga of the Ancient Bulgars, Legend of St. Olga. Russia 2005.

Sources:

1. The Chronicle (12th century) translated to Russian by Likhachev

2. Foreign sources on the history of Russia as a subject of study

3. Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus "De Ceremoniis Aulae Byzantinae" (Book 2, Part 15)

4. Life of the Holy Grand Princess Olga.

Notes:

2. The site of the village of the Vybuty Selische remains, as do many local place names associated with the name of Olga. One of them, Holguin Mountain in the Vybuty, is referred to in 1394 in connection with the conflict between Pskov and Novgorod.

3. Byzantine Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus personally adopted the Princess Olga, calling her Elga.

15. Historians say Father Gregory comes from Bulgaria. Typically, in this retinue of people who have decided on baptism, a spiritual person attends them who has contributed to adoption of such a decision.

--------------------

IGOR (913-945)
He was, according to the Russian chronicles, the son of Rurik who had come to rule Novgorod. After Rurik's death Igor was taken by his kinsman and protector, Oleg, to Kyiv, where Oleg established the capital of the Rus-Varangian control. He married in 903 Olga, a Scandinavian princess brought from Pskov. Their son was Svyatoslav. They are shown on this family chart. On Oleg's death in 913 Igor began to rule the Slavic-Rus- Varangian principality. The main activity of the Varangian rulers was collecting tribute from the Slavic villagers. And they were also eagerly establishing trading and raiding campaigns down the Dniper as far as Byzantium and the Caucasus.
More rebellions occurred when imported Nordic princes paid more attention to collecting tribute from the people than to creating order and defending them from nomad tribes, which by now often carried out sudden attacks from the south-east. The animosity of the local population towards "Eternal wanderers," as they sometimes called their Nordic rulers in the beginning because they often changed their thrones looking for more rewarding ones, culminated in the assassination of Prince Igor. The Veche of the "Drevlian" tribe found that he exaggerated when he imposed very high tribute and did very little for the people and decided to kill him. (At the death Oleg Prince Igor' was faced with a resurgence of independence among the conquered tribes such as the Drevliane and he quelled the insurgents and then extracted from them an even greater tribute. The Drevliane abided by their Prince until his greed and that of his brazen entourage forced their hand. He was captured alone and tied to two tree trunks which had been forcefully bent down by the furious tribesmen and split into two). The decision was promptly executed but very dearly paid for when later Olga, Igor's wife and acting regent sent two punitive expeditions which decimated the "Drevlian" population. Igor also launched campaigns against Byzantium that resulted in important trade treaties between the Greeks -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olga_of_Kiev

toon minder
Bekijk alles
Naaste familie
Foto versieVoeg familie toe
4 personen
Daughter of???? ??????? ????? en no name
Wife ofIgor I. grootvorst van Kiev, Varangian Ruler of Kievan Rus' (Russia)
Mother ofSviatoslav I Great Prince of Kiev

Gerelateerde projecten
Mega Merge
Legendary Heroines
Grand Princes of Kiev (??????? ????? ????????) c.376-1471
Saints
Persoonlijk
Ook bekend als:Engels (standaard): ??????? ???? ???????, Regent of Kiev, The Saint, Olga /Of Kiev/, ????? (?????) ????????, Olga (Helga) of Kiev, the Beauty, den Hellige, also called Olga Prekrasa, Grand Princess of Kiev, Olgha, Saint Olga, Holy-Equal-to-the-Apostles Olga
Beroep:Ruler of Kievan Rus as regent (945-c. 963) for her son, Svyatoslav., Fyrstinne, Regent, Princess of Kiev (945-964), SAINT, Regent of Kiev, Tsarina av Rusland, ??????, Grand Princess of Kiev (ruled 945-969, first as Regent, then as Co-Ruler), l
Etniciteit:????????, nerjalane / Tšuud
Religie:???????????
Meest voorkomende namen
of Russia Grand Duchess of Kiev, Igorevich, of Kiev, grootvorst van Kiev en 2 anderen

Do you have supplementary information, corrections or questions with regards to Saint Olga Helena of Russia Grand Duchess of Kiev (Igorevich) Grand Grand Duchess of Kiev?
The author of this publication would love to hear from you!


Timeline Saint Olga Helena of Russia Grand Duchess of Kiev (Igorevich) Grand Grand Duchess of Kiev

  This functionality is only available in Javascript supporting browsers.
Click on the names for more info. Symbols used: grootouders grandparents   ouders parents   broers-zussen brothers/sisters   kinderen children

About the surname Of Kiev

  • View the information that Genealogie Online has about the surname Of Kiev.
  • Check the information Open Archives has about Of Kiev.
  • Check the Wie (onder)zoekt wie? register to see who is (re)searching Of Kiev.

    

The publication Stambomen Koé-Muller has been compiled by (contact the author).
When copying data from this family tree, please include a reference to the origin:
Reginald Koe, "Stambomen Koé-Muller", database, Genealogy Online (https://www.genealogieonline.nl/stambomen-koe-muller/I3328.php : accessed January 20, 2022), "Saint Olga Helena of Russia Grand Duchess of Kiev (Igorevich) Grand Grand Duchess of Kiev (± 890-969)".

The login to the private area of this
publication is available only to those who
are invited by the author!


Cancel


Did you forget your password?