End of the Iberian Union: Portugal acclaims as King João IV of Portugal, thus ending a 60 year period of personal union of the crowns of Portugal and Spain and the end of the rule of the House of Habsburg (also called the Philippine Dynasty).
The Treaty of Ripon is signed, restoring peace between Scotland and Charles I of England.
Second Bishop's War: King Charles I's English army loses to a Scottish Covenanter force at the Battle of Newburn.
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