The Treaty of Ripon is signed, restoring peace between Scotland and Charles I of England.
Second Bishop's War: King Charles I's English army loses to a Scottish Covenanter force at the Battle of Newburn.
End of the Iberian Union: Portugal acclaims as King João IV of Portugal, thus ending a 60 year period of personal union of the crowns of Portugal and Spain and the end of the rule of the House of Habsburg (also called the Philippine Dynasty).
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