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Personal data Rurik (Рюрик Мирный "Prince of Novgorod") Av Svealand Prins av Novgorod 

Source 1

Ancestors (and descendant) of Rurik Av Svealand


Household of Rurik (Рюрик Мирный "Prince of Novgorod") Av Svealand Prins av Novgorod

He is married to Efanda - Sfandra - Ingrid of Norway about 876 at Novgorod, Novgorod, Russia.

Child(ren):

  1. Igor / Игорь /Rurikovich Рюрикович  ± 880-± 946 


Notes by Rurik (Рюрик Мирный "Prince of Novgorod") Av Svealand Prins av Novgorod

(Research):Rurik Encyclopædia Britannica Article died AD 879 also spelled Rorik or Hrorekr , Russian Ryurik the semilegendary founder of the Rurik dynasty of Kievan Rus. Rurik was a Viking, or Varangian, prince. His story is told in the The Russian Primary Chronicle (compiled at the beginning of the 12th century) but is not accepted at face value by modern historians. According to the chronicle, the people of Novgorod, tired of political strife, invited the Varangians about AD 862 to establish an orderly and just government there. Hence, Rurik came with his two brothers and a large retinue (druzhina) and became ruler of the city and region of Novgorod. Some historians think that Rurik came from the Scandinavian peninsula or from Jutland (now in Denmark) and seized the town of Ladoga, on Lake Ladoga. After establishing a stronghold there (c. 855), he may have gone southward along the Volkhov and captured Novgorod. Another possibility is that Rurik and his army were mercenaries, hired to guard the Volkhov-Dnieper waterway, who turned against their employers. Rurik's kinsman Oleg founded the grand principality of Kiev. Oleg's successor, Igor, believed to be Rurik's son, is considered the real founder of the Russian princely house. Rurik Dynasty Encyclopædia Britannica Article princes of Kievan Rus and, later, Muscovy who, according to tradition, were descendants of the Varangian prince Rurik, who had been invited by the people of Novgorod to rule that city (c. 862); the Rurik princes maintained their control over Kievan Rus and, later, Muscovy until 1598. Rurik's successor Oleg (d. 912) conquered Kiev (c. 882) and established control of the trade route extending from Novgorod, along the Dnieper River, to the Black Sea. Igor (allegedly Rurik's son; reigned 912-945) and his successors_his wife, St. Olga (regent 945-969), and their son Svyatoslav (reigned 945-972)_further extended their territories; Svyatoslav's son Vladimir I (St. Vladimir; reigned c. 980-1015) consolidated the dynasty's rule. Vladimir compiled the first Kievan Rus law code and introduced Christianity into the country. He also organized the Kievan Rus lands into a cohesive confederation by distributing the major cities among his sons; the eldest was to be grand prince of Kiev, and the brothers were to succeed each other, moving up the hierarchy of cities toward Kiev, filling vacancies left by the advancement or death of an elder brother. The youngest brother was to be succeeded as grand prince by his eldest nephew whose father had been a grand prince. This succession pattern was generally followed through the reigns of Svyatopolk (1015-19); Yaroslav the Wise (1019-54); his sons Izyaslav (1054-68; 1069-73; and 1077-78), Svyatoslav (1073-76), and Vsevolod (1078-93); and Svyatopolk II (son of Izyaslav; reigned 1093-1113). The successions were accomplished, however, amid continual civil wars. In addition to the princes' unwillingness to adhere to the pattern and readiness to seize their positions by force instead, the system was upset whenever a city rejected the prince designated to rule it. It was also undermined by the tendency of the princes to settle in regions they ruled rather than move from city to city to become the prince of Kiev. In 1097 all the princes of Kievan Rus met at Lyubech (northwest of Chernigov) and decided to divide their lands into patrimonial estates. The succession for grand prince, however, continued to be based on the generation pattern; thus, Vladimir Monomakh succeeded his cousin Svyatopolk II as grand prince of Kiev. During his reign (1113-25) Vladimir tried to restore unity to the lands of Kievan Rus; and his sons (Mstislav, reigned 1125-32; Yaropolk, 1132-39; Vyacheslav, 1139; and Yury Dolgoruky, 1149-57) succeeded him eventually, though not without some troubles in the 1140s. Nevertheless, distinct branches of the dynasty established their own rule in the major centres of the country outside Kiev_Halicz, Novgorod, and Suzdal. The princes of these regions vied with each other for control of Kiev; but when Andrew Bogolyubsky of Suzdal finally conquered and sacked the city (1169), he returned to Vladimir (a city in the Suzdal principality) and transferred the seat of the grand prince to Vladimir. Andrew Bogolyubsky's brother Vsevolod III succeeded him as grand prince of Vladimir (reigned 1176-1212); Vsevolod was followed by his sons Yury (1212-38), Yaroslav (1238-46), and Svyatoslav (1246-47) and his grandson Andrew (1247-52). Alexander Nevsky (1252-63) succeeded his brother Andrew; and Alexander's brothers and sons succeeded him. Furthering the tendency toward fragmentation, however, none moved to Vladimir but remained in their regional seats and secured their local princely houses. Thus, Alexander's brother Yaroslav (grand prince of Vladimir, 1264-71) founded the house of Tver, and Alexander's son Daniel founded the house of Moscow. After the Mongol invasion (1240) the Russian princes were obliged to seek a patent from the Mongol khan in order to rule as grand prince. Rivalry for the patent, as well as for leadership in the grand principality of Vladimir, developed among the princely houses, particularly those of Tver and Moscow. Gradually, the princes of Moscow became dominant, forming the grand principality of Moscow (Muscovy), which they ruled until their male line died out in 1598.
Weis, p. 205: probably a Viking; Grand Prince of Kiev.
Fyrste. Død 879.
Fyrste av Neugard i 840.
Fyrste av Novgorod 862 - 879.
Rurik var grunnleggeren av det russiske rike.
Rurikiderslekten var storfyrster av Kiev fra 880 til 1132 og senere keisere (tsarer) av Russland. I 1132 ble riket oppdelt i sine enkelte fyrstedømmer. Navnene Igor (Ingvar), Olga (Helga), Rurik (Rørek) og Oleg (Helge) er alle nordiske navn, noe som viser at slekten kom fra Sverige. Trolig var de i slekt med Munsöslekten. Navnene Rogneda (Ragnhild) og Rogvolod (Ragnvald) er også nordiske.
Fyrste av Novgorod 862 - 879.
Ifølge russisk tradisjon var Rurik grunnleggeren av det russiske rike.
Rurik-slekten regnes som det første dynasti som hersket i Russland. De var storfyrster av Kijev
[Kiev] fra 880 til 1132 og senere tsarer (keisere) av Russland. I 1132 ble riket oppdelt i sine
enkelte fyrstedømmer.
Vi finner i legenden først tre brødre: Rurik i Novgorod, Sineus i Belozero og Truvor i Izborsk.
De profiterte på interne russiske stammestrider og ble de første kjente herskerne. Dernest ble
Askold hersker i Kijev og Rogvolod i Polotsk. Senere ser vi at Ruriks fetter, Oleg, hjalp Rurik
med makt å undertrykke et opprør da Novgorods borgere ønsket å fri seg fra Ruriks styre.
En ?Vetsje? [folkmøte, rådslag] ble ifølge legenden sammenkalt av slaverne hvor det ble
besluttet å invitere de tre brødrene fra ?Varjager?-stammen ?Rus? (varjager = viking) til å
herske over slaverne. I den gamle krøniken ?Novgorodskaya Pervaya Lietopis? [Den første
Novgorod-krøniken] kan man lese at nordiske prinser ble invitert til Russland - krøniken taler
ikke om av hvem - for å bringe orden i og å forsvare russisk land mot utenlandske angripere.
På den tiden konkurrerte og stred russiske byer og fyrstedømmer med hverandre og ble ofte
angrepet av nomadiske tyrkiske stammer, noe som kunne ha skapt et behov for mer
kvalifiserete nordiske krigsherrer og deres profesjonelle soldater. Det faktum at så mange
nordiske prinser kom til Russland ved denne tid har imidlertid etterlatt seg inntrykket av at
landet i virkeligheten ble invadert av disse ?Ruridiker?-prinser og deres menn.
Igor (Ingvar), Olga (Helga), Rurik (Rørek) og Oleg (Helge) er antagelig nordiske navn, noe
som indikerer at slekten muligens kom fra Sverige. Trolig var de i slekt med Munsöslekten.
Navnene Rogneda (Ragnhild) og Rogvolod (Ragnvald) er også nordiske.
Kloss opp til det bysantinske keiserrike, som på denne tiden ennå omfattet Balkan og
Lilleasia, var Det nære Østen behersket av en annen stormakt, det arabiske kalifatet. Det var
nettopp kommet i hendene på en ny herskerætt, Abbasidene, og rikets økonomiske
tyngdepunkt lå nå i Irak og Iran, mens kalifen hadde opprettet sin residens i Bagdad. Dette
riket hadde en veldig tilgang på sølv, og det hadde gode handelsforbindelser med områdene
nord for Det kaspiske hav. Her hersket forskjellige asiatiske folk, bulgarer og khazarer. Og like
hit ned trengte svearne. Fra den baltiske kysten hadde de fulgt de seilbare elvene oppover i
det nordlige Russland, og når en hadde seilt dem så langt en kunne komme, var det ikke så
mange kilometerne en behøvde å trekke skipene før en nådde Dnjepr, som førte til
Svartehavet og Bysants, og tilløpene til Volga, som munnet ut i Det kaspiske hav. Senest i
begynnelsen av 800-tallet er forbindelsen etablert. Utgravninger har vist klare spor etter
nordboer i Staraja Ladoga (som nordmennene kalte Aldeigjuborg) fra denne tiden; byen lå like
sør for sjøen Ladoga. En enda bedre beliggenhet rent handelspolitisk hadde Novgorod, det
nordiske Holmgard, som ble et hovedsentrum, også for svensk politisk makt. Vi vet ikke
nøyaktig når det skjedde. Men at det i 839 var etablert et svenskt rike et sted i Russland,
synes å fremgå av en tilfeldig notis i en frankisk annal. I dette året kom det nemlig en
bysantinsk sendeferd til keiser Ludvig, og i følget var det også noen menn som ba om tillatelse
til gjennomreise; de sa de hørte til Rus-folket, og at deres konge kaltes khagan. Men ?Rus?,
det var det navnet svenskene fikk i Russland (kanskje har det en forbindelse med Roslagen).
Og khagan, det var den tyrkisk-arabiske betegnelsen på herskerne på de russiske steppene.
Nå ble det imidlertid fort klart for keiserens menn at disse Rus var folk av svensk ætt, og
keiseren, som på dette tidspunkt hadde all grunn til å se med skepsis på alle nordboer, fryktet
for at mennene var spioner. Han ga ordre til at deres forhold skulle undersøkes nærmere før
de fikk dra videre.
Ikke mer enn ti år yngre er en notis hos en arabisk geograf, som forteller at Rus fører
bever- og svartrevskinn, foruten frankiske sverd, så vel til Svartehavet og Konstantinopel som
til Det kaspiske hav og videre på kamelrygg til Bagdad. Det er altså klart at forbindelsen
Østersjølandene - Bagdad nå er etablert. Det konstaterer vi for øvrig også gjennom et annet
fenomen. Det begynner å flyte en veritabel strøm av sølv til Norden fra kalifatet. Den når
høydepunktet på 900-tallet, men vi har funnet mynter også fra de tidligste Abbasidenes tid, og
de kan ikke være kommet i jorda særlig meget senere enn 800. I Kaupang er det således
funnet et par mynter slått av Karl den Stores samtidige, eventyrkalifen fra 1001 natt, Harun
al-Rasjid.
Dermed hadde nordboene etablert seg i en gunstig posisjon mellom øst og vest.
Enten de hentet skinn og slaver i Østersjølandene og solgte dem til frankerne mot våpen,
glass, bronse, keramikk og vin - eller de eksporterte skinn og våpen til kalifens land for sølv,
som de også kunne bruke til å handle vestpå med, gjorde de gode forretninger. Hovedparten
av disse forretningene ble nok drevet av svear og særlig av gotlendinger. Nordmennene var i
denne sammenheng neppe mer enn klokkeren som det dryppet på. Men også de fant veien
østover - dro i austerveg - og i alle tilfeller er denne kontakten med Østen også en del av den
generelle bakgrunn for det fellesnordiske foretagende som heter vikingtogene.
I en runeinnskrift fra Östergötland heter det
Sønner fikk Gulle, en god bonde, fem.
Ved Fyris falt Amund, den uredde kjempe.
Assur kom øst i Grekland av dage.
Halvdan ble på Bornholm drept,
Kåre ved Dundee - og død er Boe.
Verset sier ikke så lite om spennvidden i en svensk vikings interessesfære - fra hjemlige
tronstridigheter til herjing i Skottland og kamper i Bysants. Svenske eventyrere hadde åpnet
handelsveiene til Svartehavet og Det kaspiske hav. I annen halvdel av 800-tallet tok en
svensk høvdingætt ledelsen over de slaviske folkene langs de store elvene i Vest-Russland;
det var Rurik (Rørek) og hans ætlinger. Handelen alternerte, som i vest, for en stor del med
herjing, eller den hadde plyndringer som utgangspunkt. En god del av handelsvarene var
skatter vikingene - eller varjagene som de heter på disse kanter - hadde presset ut av slaviske
og finske stammer. Resultatet ble imidlertid at arabisk sølv strømmet til Birka, til Hedeby, og
fremfor alt, til Gotland. Omkring 1000 sølvskatter fra disse par århundrene er funnet i svensk
jord, endel, men langt mindre, i dansk. De politiske følgene denne sølvstrømmen fikk, vet vi lite
om. Men de kan ikke ha vært ubetydelige. Det vi iallfall vet, er at svenskættede konger
omkring 900 satte seg fast i Sønder-Jylland, sannsynligvis for å beherske hele
Østersjøhandelen, fra Novgorod til Hedeby.
Dette svenske Østersjøveldet tok imidlertid slutt etter noen årtier. Svenskene i Hedeby ble
fordrevet av tyskerne i 934. En mannsalder senere faller glemselens slør over det nylig så
driftige Birka. Sølvstrømmen fra kalifatet ebber ut, for politiske omkalfatringer langt sørpå fører
til at de gode forbindelsene med rikene sør og sørøst for Det kaspiske hav blir brutt. Til
gjengjeld etablerer russerne nærmere forbindelser med Bysants. Rurik-ætlingen Vladimir lar
seg døpe, og bysantinske misjonærer får innpass i Russland. Mens Birka forsvinner, overlever
gotlendingene; det er de som nå har hovedparten av handelen på Novgorod.
[blended.FTW]
[mergebase.FTW]
Held fief in Jutland
[blended.FTW]
[mergebase.FTW]
Held fief in Jutland
[blended.FTW]
[mergebase.FTW]
Held fief in Jutland
[s2.FTW]

[Brøderbund WFT Vol. 2, Ed. 1, Tree #1241, Date of Import: May 8, 1997]

!PRINCE OF RUSSIA[Brøderbund WFT Vol. 2, Ed. 1, Tree #1241, Date of Import: May 8, 1997]

!PRINCE OF RUSSIA
Basic Lfe Information

Rurik, the Viking leader who is traditionally credited with founding the Russian state, was born in Friesland, a region in present-day Holland, which his father controlled. After leading raids in France, England, and Germany, Rurik gained control of a large tract of land in Jutland. However, he soon abandoned his claim under pressure from rival chieftains.

In the 850s, Rurik and his brothers Sineus and Truvor led a band of Vikings into northwestern Russia where they established a settlement near Lake Ladoga in what is now northeastern Russia very near the border with Finland. Rurik soon moved part of the settlement to nearby Novgorod, according to legend, at the invitation of the local Slavs. There he established the seat of his power and built a fortress from which he could rule the Russian lands. His rule extended as far south as Kiev where his successors founded the powerful Kievan state, which lasted until the 1200s.

From Rurik came the house of Rurikovitch which ruled Russia until the end of the 16th century.

Children

Rurik had a son:
Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev

<http://www.robertsewell.ca/kiev.html>
Basic Lfe Information

Rurik, the Viking leader who is traditionally credited with founding the Russian state, was born in Friesland, a region in present-day Holland, which his father controlled. After leading raids in France, England, and Germany, Rurik gained control of a large tract of land in Jutland. However, he soon abandoned his claim under pressure from rival chieftains.

In the 850s, Rurik and his brothers Sineus and Truvor led a band of Vikings into northwestern Russia where they established a settlement near Lake Ladoga in what is now northeastern Russia very near the border with Finland. Rurik soon moved part of the settlement to nearby Novgorod, according to legend, at the invitation of the local Slavs. There he established the seat of his power and built a fortress from which he could rule the Russian lands. His rule extended as far south as Kiev where his successors founded the powerful Kievan state, which lasted until the 1200s.

From Rurik came the house of Rurikovitch which ruled Russia until the end of the 16th century.

Children

Rurik had a son:
Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev

<http://www.robertsewell.ca/kiev.html>
Acceded: 826
A Scandinavian chief who was, in effect, hired to govern, as an outside
source, to bring about order in a town of many problems, the town of
Novgorod. Two other Scandinavians gained control of the city of Kiev: Dir and
Askold. Thus, 862 is considered the beginning of the Russian empire. Rurik
was succeeded by his son Igor.
Rurik
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Rurik or Riurik (Russian: ??´???; Old East Norse: Rørik, meaning "famous ruler"; ca. 830 – ca. 879) was a Varangian chieftain who gained control of Ladoga in 862, built the Holmgard settlement near Novgorod, and founded the Rurik Dynasty which ruled Kievan Rus and then Russia until the 16th century.

Contents [hide]
1 Name
2 History
3 Disputed origin
4 Genetic Research
5 Hrörek of Dorestad
6 References
7 See also

[edit] Name

The runes ruRikr representing the Old Norse name Hrœrekr on the Viking Age runestone U 413 in the church of Norrsunda, Uppland, Sweden.Main article: Roderick (name)
Riurik is the Slavic rendering of the same Germanic name as the modern Anglo-Scots Roderick, the Welsh Rhydderch or Spanish and Portuguese Rodrigo. In old Germanic languages it had forms such as Hrodric (Old High German) and Hroðricus (Old English). In Old Norse, Hrœrekr (Norway, Iceland) and RøRikR (Denmark, Sweden), from which Riurik is derived. The name also appears in Beowulf as Hreðrik[1].

[edit] History

A monument celebrating the millennium of Rurik's arrival to NovgorodThere is a debate over how Rurik came to control Ladoga and Novgorod. The only information about him is contained in the 12th-century Russian Primary Chronicle, which states that Chuds, Slavs, Merias, Veses and Krivichs "…drove the Varangians back beyond the sea, refused to pay them tribute, and set out to govern themselves". Afterwards the tribes started fighting each other and decided to invite Rurik to reestablish order.

Rurik remained in power until his death in 879. His successors (the Rurik Dynasty), however, moved the capital to Kiev and founded the state of Kievan Rus, which persisted until 1240, the time of Mongol invasion. A number of extant princely families are patrilineally descended from Rurik, although the last Rurikid to rule Russia, Vasily IV, died in 1612.

There is a large 9th-century funerary barrow in Novgorod Oblast, reminiscent of the mounds at Old Uppsala. Intricately defended against looting, it remains to be excavated. The local inhabitants refer to it as Rurik's Grave.

[edit] Disputed origin
Even though some historians emphasize folklore roots for the Rurik legend and consequently dismiss Rurik as a legendary figure, there is a controversy about his ethnic origins in Eastern Europe.

According to the Primary Chronicle Rurik was one of the Rus, a Varangian tribe likened by the chronicler to Danes, Swedes, English and Gotlanders. In the 20th century, archaeologists partly corroborated the chronicle's version of events. It was discovered that the settlement of Ladoga, whose foundation has been ascribed to Rurik, was actually established in the mid-8th century. Earthenware, household utensils, and types of buildings from the period of Rurik's foundation correspond to patterns then prevalent in Jutland.

Rurik and his brothers Truvor and Sineus arrive in LadogaSome Slavic historians argue that the account of Rurik's invitation was borrowed by a pro-Scandinavian chronicler from a hypothetical Norse document. For instance, the Primary Chronicle states that Rurik arrived to Slavic lands with two brothers, Sineus and Truvor, and sent them to rule the towns of Beloozero and Izborsk, respectively. Instead of connecting Sineus to Signjotr and Truvor to Torvald, they suggest that the chronicler read a hypothetical Scandinavian document and misinterpreted the Norse words 'sine hus' (with house) and 'tru voring' (with loyal guard) as the names of Rurik's brothers: Sineus and Truvor.

There is another theory that Rurik, on account of common intermarriages between Varangians and Slavic women, was of mixed Slavic-Varangian descent. This theory is based on the information of the first modern historian of Russia, Vasily Tatishchev (a Rurikid himself), who claimed that Rurik was of Wendish extraction. He went so far as to name his mother, Umila; his maternal grandfather, Gostomysl; and a cousin, Vadim. Those who assume good faith on Tatishchev's part point out that he based his account on the lost Ioachim Chronicle.

[edit] Genetic Research
A current DNA research project by Professor Andrzej Bajor[1] of Poland, under the auspices of the Family Tree DNA Rurikid Dynasty Project, seeks to more accurately place Rurik within the light of history and out of the shadows of legend, while simultaneously trying to find his modern descendants. So far, only two modern Rurikid princes have agreed to take this DNA test. Their results indicate that their male line originated in Uppland province in Sweden. So far, one Swede shares 11 of the prince's markers, and he believes that his own male line goes back to the 15th century in Roslagen. The DNA results of modern Rurikid princes indicate that Rurik was of Finno-Ugrian descent (haplogroup N3a1) [2]. Further genetic studies seem to indicate the existence of two haplogroups among modern Rurikids: the descendants of Vladimir II Monomakh (Monomakhoviches) are of N3a1 group typical for Finno-Ugrian people, while the descendants of Oleg I of Chernigov (Olgoviches) are of R1a group typical for Slavic peoples. According to the Russian Newsweek magazine it indicates that the official genealogy is probably incorrect but leaves the ethnic origin of Rurik unclear [3]

[edit] Hrörek of Dorestad
Main article: Rorik of Dorestad

Rorik of Dorestad, as conceived by H. W. KoekkoekThe only Hrörek described in Western chronicles was Rorik of Dorestad, a konung from the royal house of Hedeby. Since the 19th century, there have been attempts to identify him with the Viking prince Rurik of Russian chronicles.[4]

Roerik of Dorestad was born about 810/820 to Ali Anulo, 9th King of Hedeby. Frankish chroniclers mention that he received lands in Friesland from the Emperor Louis I. This was not enough for him, and he started to plunder neighbouring lands: he took Dorestad in 850, captured Hedeby in 857 and looted Bremen in 859. The Emperor was enraged and stripped him of all his possessions in 860. After that Roerik disappears from the Western sources for a considerable period of time. And at that very moment, in 862, the Russian Rurik arrives in the Eastern Baltic, builds the fortress of Ladoga and later moves to Novgorod.

Roerik of Dorestad reappeared in Frankish chronicles in 870, when his Friesland demesne was returned to him by Charles the Bald; in 882 he is already mentioned as dead. The Russian chronicle places the death of Rurik of Novgorod at 879. According to Western sources, the ruler of Friesland was converted to Christianity by the Franks. This may have parallels with the Christianization of the Rus', as reported by Patriarch Photius in 867.

Preceded by
Gostomysl Prince of Novgorod Succeeded by
Oleg

[edit] References
^ Professor Bajor can be contacted at: [(e-mail adres niet gepubliceerd)].
^ DNA Testing of the Rurikid and Gediminid Princes
^ ???????? «?????? ??????» Russian Newsweek N52 January 2008
^ Rurik's identification with Hrörek was propagated by Boris Rybakov and Anatoly Kirpichnikov (see ?.?. ???????????: ???????? ? ????????? ???????. ?????? ? ??????????? ????????? // ?????? ????????????? ??????. - ???., 1997. - ?. 7-18). Alexander Nazarenko objects to this identification (see Nazarenko A., Rjurik ? Riis Th., Rorik // Lexikon des Mittelalters. VII. - Munchen, 1995. - P. 880, 1026.)
Acceded: 826
A Scandinavian chief who was, in effect, hired to govern, as an outside
source, to bring about order in a town of many problems, the town of
Novgorod. Two other Scandinavians gained control of the city of Kiev: Dir and
Askold. Thus, 862 is considered the beginning of the Russian empire. Rurik
was succeeded by his son Igor.
Acceded: 826
A Scandinavian chief who was, in effect, hired to govern, as an outside
source, to bring about order in a town of many problems, the town of
Novgorod. Two other Scandinavians gained control of the city of Kiev: Dir and
Askold. Thus, 862 is considered the beginning of the Russian empire. Rurik
was succeeded by his son Igor.
Probably a Viking
Acceded: 826
A Scandinavian chief who was, in effect, hired to govern, as an outside
source, to bring about order in a town of many problems, the town of
Novgorod. Two other Scandinavians gained control of the city of Kiev: Dir and
Askold. Thus, 862 is considered the beginning of the Russian empire. Rurik
was succeeded by his son Igor.
Acceded: 826
A Scandinavian chief who was, in effect, hired to govern, as an outside
source, to bring about order in a town of many problems, the town of
Novgorod. Two other Scandinavians gained control of the city of Kiev: Dir and
Askold. Thus, 862 is considered the beginning of the Russian empire. Rurik
was succeeded by his son Igor.
Kilde: http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~slekter/
Grunnla det Russiske rikett i 862. Se leksikon.
Kalles også for Friserkongen Hrærik.
826: acceded the throne
Held a feif in Jutland.

["European Royal Houses"]
The Russian Monarchy was founded by Rurik, a pagan Norse adventurer who ruled the region nr Novgorod 862, and was styled by later historians "Grand Prince of Novgorod".

[Weis 205] prob. a Viking
The House of Rurik The political organization of the Eastern Slavs was still largely tribal; they had created no unified system through which their constant tribal conflicts could be resolved. According to Russian tradition recorded in the Primary Chronicle, the chief source of much of early Russian history, internal dissension and feuds among the Eastern Slavs around Novgorod became so violent that they voluntarily chose to call upon a foreign prince who could unite them into one strong state. Their choice was Rurik, or Ryurik, a Scandinavian chief, who in 862 became ruler of Novgorod. Two other Scandinavians, Dir and Askold, possibly legendary figures, gained control of Kiev. From the Scandinavians, called Varangians, or Rus, came the name Rossiya, or Russia, meaning "land of the Rus." (It is debated, however, whether Rus is derived from ruotsi, the Finnish name for the Swedes, or from Rukhs-As, from the name of an Alanic tribe of southern Russia.) The establishment of Rurik and the dynasty he founded initiated a period of internal consolidation, expansion of Slav territory, and the spread of the Slavic people, notably toward the northeast and northwest, where the native Finnic strains were largely absorbed or replaced by Slavs.
The House of Rurik The political organization of the Eastern Slavs was still largely tribal; they had created no unified system through which their constant tribal conflicts could be resolved. According to Russian tradition recorded in the Primary Chronicle, the chief source of much of early Russian history, internal dissension and feuds among the Eastern Slavs around Novgorod became so violent that they voluntarily chose to call upon a foreign prince who could unite them into one strong state. Their choice was Rurik, or Ryurik, a Scandinavian chief, who in 862 became ruler of Novgorod. Two other Scandinavians, Dir and Askold, possibly legendary figures, gained control of Kiev. From the Scandinavians, called Varangians, or Rus, came the name Rossiya, or Russia, meaning "land of the Rus." (It is debated, however, whether Rus is derived from ruotsi, the Finnish name for the Swedes, or from Rukhs-As, from the name of an Alanic tribe of southern Russia.) The establishment of Rurik and the dynasty he founded initiated a period of internal consolidation, expansion of Slav territory, and the spread of the Slavic people, notably toward the northeast and northwest, where the native Finnic strains were largely absorbed or replaced by Slavs.
According to Brian Tompsett's Royal Genealogy, Rurik of Kiev held a fief in Jutland.
According to Brian Tompsett's Royal Genealogy, Rurik of Kiev held a fief in Jutland.
[3365] WSHNGT.ASC file (Geo Washington Ahnentafel) # 139533728

DUDLE.GED Grand Prince of Novgorod

DEATH: RURIK.DEC (Compuserve)
COMYN4.TAF (Compuserve), p. 7 says ABT 879

http://www.dcs.hull.ac.uk/cgi-bin/gedlkup/n=royal?royal07128 says b abt 800, d 879; Held fief in Jutland. See Europisch Stammtafeln Bund II tafel 89.

EDWARD3.DOC Ryurik, Grand Duke of NOVGOROD (830-879)
These particular Varangians were known as Russes - for they were thus named. The Chuds, the Slavs, the Krivichians, and the Ves then said to the people of Rus, "Our land is great and rich, but there is no order in it. Come to rule and reign over us". They thus selected 3 brothers, , with their kinfolk, who took with them all the Russes and migrated. The oldest, Rurik, located himself at Novgorod; the 2nd Sineus at Beloozero; and the 3rd, Truvor, in Izborsk. On account of the Varangians, the district of Novgorod became known as Rus. (per Russian Primary Chronicle, as quoted in Royal Families of Scandinava, p 151.
Hallu, Roger, "Anne of Kiev, Queen of France", (in French and Russian) located in the Pittsburgh Carnegie Public Library, Main Branch: Rurik of Novgorod, Grand Duke of Kiev, ruled during the period 862-879. He died in 879. He was succeeded by his nephew, Oleg. Oleg was, like Rurik, a semi-legendary personage, who freed the Eastern Slavs from the rule of the Khazars, a powerful Turkic stock, and he concluded a treaty with the Byzantine Empire. He ruled during the period 879-912, when he was succeeded by Rurik's son, Igor. Rurik was probably a Danish Viking.
The following post to SGM, 21 Sep 2000, by Rynjulf Langballe, gives an account of Rurik's possible (speculative, but reasoned) ancestry (according to a Scandinavian view, which is not always agreed upon, especially by Stewart Baldwin, et. al.). However it looks OK as a tentative pedigree, until disproven:
From: Brynjulf Langballe ((e-mail adres niet gepubliceerd)) Newsgroups: soc.genealogy.medieval Date: 2000/09/21
Rurik was very likely son of Bjørn Ironside who was son of Ragnar Lodbrok. Ragnar was king in the area called Denmark in his time. This was an area that for hundred of years had covered present Denmark, western Sweden and the south east of Norway. Ragnar conquered Sweden, Finland and parts of Russia probably in 832. Later he sat his son Whiteserk in rule of Russia after a second campagne which frightened Byzants. After 850 Whiteserk was killed in Russia and Ragnar made a third campagne. Bjørn Ironside was set to rule both Sweden and Russia. But in 862 he was killed in a battle in Frisia. The same year the Nestor Chronicle is saying Rusia was in lack of a king and asked (his son) Rurik to come.
The place Rurik come from is said to be Sweden, Jutland or Frisia. His father was king in Sweden. When Saxo is saying Jutland this is Gothland (Gøtaland) in Sweden. Rurik very well could have followed his father to Frisia as well, and therefor where coming physicly from there. Something confusing the understanding of this is another Rurik in Frisia at the same time. He was son of king Ali (Anulo) of Haithabu and was king in Dorestadt 826-833 and was in the service of the Franks from 850 to 882.
The bear attribute of Russia seems to come from the name of Rurik's father, Bjørn, which is bear in Scandinavian language.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Rurik or Riurik (held to be the same name as the ScandinavianHroerekr) (ca 830 - ca 879) was a Varangian who gained control ofLadoga in 862 and built the Holmgard settlement (Rurikovo Gorodische)in Novgorod.

The Varangians in RussiaContents [showhide]
1 History

2 Disputed origin

2.1 The Slavic versions
2.2 The Normanist versions

3 Roerik of Dorestad

[edit]
History
There is a debate over how Rurik came to control Ladoga and Novgorod.The only information about him is contained in the 12th-centuryRussian Primary Chronicle, which states that he was invited in by thelocal tribes who wanted order. Some historians point out to thefolklore roots of the invitation legend and consequently dismiss Rurikas a legendary figure.

Rurik reputedly remained in power until his death in 879. Hissuccessors (the Rurik Dynasty), however, moved the capital to Kiev andfounded the state of Kievan Rus, which persisted until 1240, the timeof Mongol invasion. A number of extant princely families arepatrilineally descended from Rurik, although the last Rurikid to ruleRussia, Vasily IV, died in 1612.

Disputed origin
Even though Rurik was probably legendary there is a controversy abouthis ethnic origins.

The Slavic versions

Rurik and his brothers arrive to Ladoga.Some Slavic historians attemptto demonstrate that account of Rurik's invitation was borrowed by thechronicle from one of Norse sagas. For instance, the Primary Chroniclestates that Rurik arrived to Slavic lands with two brothers, Sineusand Truvor, and sent them to rule the towns of Beloozero and Izborsk,respectively. It has been demonstrated that the chroniclermisinterpreted his Scandinavian source and wrong translated Norsewords 'sine hus' (with house) and 'tru voring' (with loyal guard) asthe names of Rurik's alleged brothers: Sineus and Truvor.

There is another theory that Rurik, on account of commonintermarriages between Varangians and Slav women, was both Slav andScandinavian. This theory is based on the information of the firstmodern historian of Russia, Vasily Tatishchev (a Rurikid himself), whoclaimed that Rurik was of Wendish extraction. It is assumed thatTatishchev's source was an ancient chronicle that has since been lost.

The Normanist versions
The Normanist versions of Rurik's origin follow the statement of thePrimary Chronicle that Rurik was one of the Rus, a foreign tribelikened by the chronicler to Danes, Swedes, English, etc. andindentified by Adam of Bremen with inhabitants of Jutland. See Rus'(people) for detailed discussion of the Rus' provenance.

In the 20th century, archaeologists partly corroborated thechronicle's version of events. It was discovered that the settlementof Ladoga, whose foundation has been ascribed to Rurik, was actuallyestablished in the mid-9th century. Earthenware, household utensilsand types of buildings from the period of Rurik's foundationcorrespond to Scandinavian patterns and were most likely imported fromJutland.

[edit]
Roerik of Dorestad
In order to back up the Normanist version, contemporary Westernsources also were examined. The name Roerik, most often used by theDanes, is quite singular for the period in question. The onlycontemporary Roerik known to Western sources was Roerik of Dorestad, akonung from the royal house of Haithabu. Since the 19th century, therehave been attempts to identify him with the Viking prince Rurik ofRussian chronicles.

Roerik of Dorestad [1] (http://genealogy.euweb.cz/scand/norway1.html)was born about 810/820 to Ali Anulo, 9th King of Haithabu. Frankishchroniclers mention that he received lands in Friesland from theEmperor Louis I. This was not enough for him, and he started toplunder neighbouring lands: he took Dorestad in 850, captured Haithabuin 857 and looted Bremen in 859. The Emperor was enraged and strippedhim of all his possessions in 860. After that Roerik disappears fromthe Western sources for a considerable period of time. And at thatvery moment, in 862, the Russian Rurik arrives in the Eastern Baltic,builds the fortress of Ladoga and later moves to Novgorod.

Roerik of Dorestad reappeared in Frankish chronicles in 870, when hisFriesland demesne was returned to him by Charles the Bold; in 882 heis already mentioned as dead. The Russian chronicle places the deathof Rurik of Novgorod at 879.

There is a large 9th-century funerary barrow near Ladoga, reminiscentof the regal kurgans of Yngling kings, which remains to be excavated.The local inhabitants refer to it as Rurik's Grave(http://tinyurl.com/6dvm9|).
[MAGNUS.FTW]

Dette er en sannsynlig, men ikke sikker, forbindelse mellom Skjoldungene og
Novgorod-dynastiet.
[Jeremiah Brown.FTW]

[from Ancestry.com 139798.GED]

Ryurik of Novgorod, Grand Duke of Kiev, ruled 862-879. Ryurik was probably a Danish Viking. He was succeeded by his nephew Oleg, who was, like Ryurik, a semi-legendary personage, who freed the Eastern Slavs from the rule of the Khazars, a powerful Turkik stock. Oleg concluded a treaty with the Byzantine Empire and ruled 879-912.
#Générale##Générale#Profession : Prince de Novgorod en 862, de Belouzero etd'Izborsk en864.
{geni:occupation} Prince Of Holmgård (Novgorod),Ryska rikets grundare
{geni:about_me} Rurik / Riurik / Рюрик / (c. 830 – 879)

Born: Unknown, Mecklenburg

Died: 879, Novgorod

Father: Goldau / Goldav of Obodrite

Mother: Unknown

Spouse: Efanda of Urman (Edvina Alfrind Ingrid) and Unknown

Issue [two possible children]: Igor, and Unknown

In addition to Igor, Rurik have probably had other children, since in the Russian-Byzantine treaty of 944 were mentioned two nephews of Igor Rurikid - Igor and Akun.

Rurik (d. 879 in Novgorod) is identified sometimes with konung Rorik (Hrørek) of Jutland Hedebyu (Denmark) (d. before 882). This is a different profile. Rurik - representative of the princely family Obodrite, and its name - it's a Slavic tribal nickname associated with the falcon, which is the Slavic languages ​​are also called Rarog.

http://www.espell.se/saga/p89e66e4d.html

Note: The earliest generations of the so-called Rurikid family are reconstructed solely on the basis of the sparse information in the "Povest' vremennykh let" or 'Tale of the Years of Time', better known as the Primary Chronicle and also sometimes known as Nestor´s Chronicle. As pointed out by Franklin & Shepard, the extant manuscripts of the Primary Chronicle which date from the 12th century should not be taken at face value as they must have been compiled from patchy sources of information. It is likely that the compilers exaggerated the role of Rurik's family in the 9th and 10th centuries, in order to establish a lengthy, credible history for the Russian principalities which were flourishing by the 12th century. Any reconstructed genealogy of the Rurikid dynasty during the early years, as well as all dates and even names, must be viewed with caution.

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/RUSSIA,%20Rurik.htm#_Toc198014250

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rurik

Rurik was a Varangian chieftain who gained control of Ladoga in 862, built the Holmgard settlement near Novgorod, and founded the Rurik Dynasty which ruled Kievan Rus and then Galicia-Volhynia until the 14th and Muscovy until the 16th century.

Even though some historians emphasize folklore roots for the Rurik legend and consequently dismiss Rurik as a legendary figure, there is a controversy about his ethnic origins in Eastern Europe.

=== Fenno-Ugric ===

A recent DNA research project by Dr. Andrzej Bajor of Poland, under the auspices of the Family Tree DNA Rurikid Dynasty Project of FamilyTree DNA company, seeks to more accurately place Rurik within the light of history and out ofthe shadows of legend, while simultaneously trying to map his modern descendants. The DNA results of 191 men claiming to be Rurikid descendants indicate that most (68%) of the them had haplogroup N1C1, tagged with L550, characteristic of the southern Baltic and Scandinavian people. Further genetic studies seem to indicate the existence of two major haplogroups among modern Rurikids: the descendants of Vladimir II Monomakh (Monomakhoviches) and some othersare of N1c1 group (130 people or 68%), while the descendants of a junior prince from the branch of Oleg I of Chernigov (Olgoviches) and some others (total 45 peoples or 24%) are of R1a and R1b haplogroups typical for Slavic, Germanic and Celts peoples. According to the Russian Newsweek magazine it indicates that it could have been a non-paternity event in the Chernihiv branch during wars between royal clans.
The project of Bajor started with test of 12 well documented genealogy-traced Rurikid descendants, from widely varying branches (two Gagarins, a Khilkov, Vadbolsky, Puzyna, Kropotkin, Lobanov-Rostovsky, Shakhovskoy, Myshetsky, Solomin, Rzhevsky, Putyatin), whose Y-DNA shows they belong to the same N1C1 agnatic lineage, some of them did additional 67 markers test that allowed to establish unique Rurikid DNA pattern.

== Rurikid descendants ==

The Rurikid dynasty went on to rule Kiev and its vast Empire. After the disintegration of Kievan Rus' in the 13-14th centuries, the dynasty continued to rule two of the three successor states. One, Galicia-Volhynia, was ruled by the Rurikid dynasty until the deaths of Andrew and Lev II in 1323. The other was the north-eastern principality of Vladimir-Suzdal, which later became the Grand Duchy of Moscow and eventually the Tsardom of Russia. The last Tsar from the Rurikid dynasty was Fedor I, who died in 1598.
One descendant of the Rurikid Grand Prince of Tver was Catherine the Great, who married Peter III of the Romanov dynasty in 1745, uniting the two dynasties.
Composer Modest Mussorgski, anarchist Peter Kropotkin and filmmaker Jacques Tati were descended from Rurik in the male line, as are many noble Russian families. Among these descendants of Rurik are the Volkonsky, Belosselsky-Belozersky, Obolensky, Shuyski, Dolgorukov, Khilkoff, Repnin, Gorchakov, Gagarin, and Putyatin families, as well as Ruthenian families of Ostrogski, Massalski, and Czetwertyński.
Through the Ukrainian-born wife of the twelfth-century King Henry I of France, many Western Europeans, noble and commoner alike, can claim descent from Rurik. Henry's queen had been born Anne of Kiev, daughter of Yaroslav the Wise, probably a great-great-great-grandson of Rurik.
______________________________________________________

КИЕВСКОТО БЪЛГАРСКО КНЯЖЕСТВО

В края на ІХ век град Киев става столица на независимо княжество. Това е естествена последица от икономическото, културното и политическо развитие на района, а не прищявка на варяга Рюрик с дружината му от скандинавски произход. Варягите несъмнено са играли съществена роля в борбата за надмощие в районите на Киев и Новгород, но според летописа на Волжска България - Български летописи - Джагфар тарихи6, Рюрик /с българското име Лачин/ е брат на кан Джилки /855-882 г./ и син на кан Урус Айдар /805-855 г./. След смъртта на последния във Волжска България започват междуособни борби между кан Джилки като законен наследник и застъпник на исляма, и Лачин/Рюрик/ - по-малкия син, поддържникна старата вяра. През първата половина на ІХ век районът около Киев и на север до Балтийско море, който е северозападната част от Велика България, наречен „Ак Урус” – Бяла България за разлика от остатъчната Волжска България, наречена ”Кара Урус” – Черна България, е управляван от таркан Будим /787-859 г./, син на кан Крум и брат на кан Омуртаг. В контекста на политическите реалности по Северното Причерноморие и изобщо на територията на бивша Велика България това означава зависимост на Киев от Дунавска България. Не случайно в Джагфар тарихи са отбелязани приятелството и дружеските връзки между Шамбат, един от първите български владетели на Киев и брат на Кубрат, и Аспарух, както и обезателството поето от Аспарух, след смъртта на Шамбат да попечителства наследниците му, останали в най-западните части на Велика България. Поради особено благоприятното си местоположение, Киев става стратегическа цел за Рюрик /Лачин/, тъй като цетралните райони на Волжска България остават твърдо под властта на брат му кан Джилки. За овладяването на Киев, Лачин/Рюрик/ използва военна подкрепа както от хазарите, така и от варягите. При военни действия с променлив успех, на страната на Рюрик участва варягът Асколд /Халиб/, а на страната на кан Джилки, варягите Ерик и синът му Олег/Салахби/. От 875 г. българинът Джун, внук на Будим и варягът Олег /Салахби/, син на Ерик са съуправители на Киевска и Новгородска област, зависими от Волжска България и настойници на сина на Рюрик – Угор Лачин, който е държан под стража. В 911 г. синът на Асколд , Худ, завзема Киев и издига за княз сина на Рюрик - българинът Угор Лачин /Игор Рюриков/. С това прекъсва политическата зависимост на Киев както от Волжска, така и от Дунавска България. Основоположникът Лачин /Рюрик/, синът му Угор /Игор/ – княз до 945 г. и останалите князе от Рюриковия род укрепват властта си над околните славянски племена, развиват и укрепват икономическата и политическа независимост на княжеството от Хазарския хаганат и поддържат близки отношения с Аспарухова България. Те остават в историята като създатели на киевската княжеска и по-късно царска династия, не поради нов, чужд или специален етнически произход. И преди тях владетелите на Киев са българи. Не и поради религиозни причини. Те също са езичници, както и предшественицитеси. Не и поради династична приемственост, защото предшествениците им също са преки наследници на български канове. Те стават основоположници на Киевската княжеска и царска династия, защото извоюват пълната независимост на Киевското княжество.

(Моля, спазвайте нашата работа, or in English: We ask that you save our work. Ben notes: Apparently it is a text that explains that Rurik is really Bulgarian by the name of Lachin. However, it provides only assertion and no sources to back it.)

*********************************

From the English Wikipedia entry: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rurik

History

There is a debate over how Rurik came to control Ladoga and Novgorod. The only information about him is contained in the 12th-century Russian Primary Chronicle, which states that Chuds, Slovene (one of the tribes of eastern Slavs), Merias, Veses and Krivichs (also a slavic tribe) "…drove the Varangians back beyond the sea, refused to pay them tribute, and set out to govern themselves".

Afterwards the tribes started fighting each other and decided to invite Rurik to reestablish order.

Rurik remained in power until his death in 879.

He married Efanda (Edvina Alfrind Ingrid) of Urman. His successors (the Rurik Dynasty), however, moved the capital to Kiev and founded the state of Kievan Rus, which persisted until 1240, the time of Mongol invasion. A number of extant princely families are patrilineally descended from Rurik, although the last Rurikid to rule Russia, Vasily IV, died in 1612.

There is a large 9th-century funerary barrow in Novgorod Oblast called Shum Gora, intricately defended against looting.[clarification needed] It remains to be excavated. The local inhabitants refer to it as Rurik's Grave.

Disputed origin

Even though some historians emphasize folklore roots for the Rurik legend and consequently dismiss Rurik as a legendary figure, there is a controversy about his ethnic origins in Eastern Europe.

According to the Primary Chronicle Rurik was one of the Rus, a Varangian (sea travelers, perhaps VIKINGS) tribe likened by the chronicler to Danes, Swedes, Angles, and Gotlanders. In the 20th century, archaeologists partly corroborated the chronicle's version of events. It was discovered that the settlement of Ladoga, whose foundation has been ascribed to Rurik, was actually established in the mid-8th century. Earthenware, household utensils, and types of buildings from the period of Rurik's foundation correspond to patterns then prevalent in Jutland. (For the Redhead Encyclopedia entry, please see below.)

Some Slavic historians (B.A. Rybakov and his followers among them) argue that the account of Rurik's invitation was borrowed by a pro-Scandinavian chronicler from a hypothetical Norse document. For instance, the Primary Chronicle states that Rurik arrived to Slavic lands with two brothers, Sineus and Truvor, and sent them to rule the towns of Beloozero and Izborsk, respectively. Instead of connecting Sineus to Signjotr and Truvor to Torvald, they suggest that the chronicler read a hypothetical Scandinavian document and misinterpreted the Norse words 'sine hus' (with house) and 'tru voring' (with loyal guard) as the names of Rurik's brothers: Sineus and Truvor.

There is another theory that Rurik, on account of common intermarriages between Varangians and Slavic women, was of mixed Slavic-Varangian descent. This theory is based on the information of the first modern historian of Russia, Vasily Tatishchev (a Rurikid himself), who claimed that Rurik was of Wendish extraction. He went so far as to name his mother, Umila; his maternal grandfather, Gostomysl; and a cousin, Vadim. Rurik's father were from Finland. Thosewho assume good faith on Tatishchev's part point out that he based his account on the lost Ioachim Chronicle.

Last there is a theory that identifies Rurik with the Danish Viking lord Rorik of Dorestad, who ruled the western coast from Jutland down to northern France.
--------------------
http://genealogy.euweb.cz/russia/rurik1.html#IP

'''Rurik, konung of Novgorod and Ladoga (862-879), +879''' (for his identity see NOTE); m.Efanda/Sfandra/Ingrid of Norway, sister of Helgu/Oleg (+912), konung of Novgorod and Kiev; They had issue:
* A1. Ingvar/Igor "the Old", konung of Novgorod and Kiev (912-945/6), *877, +killed nr Iskorosten 945/946; m.St.Helga/Olga of Pskov (*ca 903 +969), regent in Kiev (945-964)), she was baptised in Constantinople and received the name Elena
** B1. Svyatoslav I, konung of Novgorod and Kiev (945/6-972), *ca 942, +killed by Pechenegs 972; 1m: Predslava (a Bohemian woman); 2m: Malusha (*ca 944 +1002), a household servant of his mother
*** C1. [1m.] Yaropolk I, Pr of Kiev (972-980), *961, +murdered in Kiev 980; m.NN, a Greek nun
**** D1. Svyatopolk I "the Accursed", Pr of Turov, Great Pr of Kiev (1015)+(1017-19), *980, +on the way to Poland, after the battle on Alta River 1019; m.ca 1013 N, dau.of Boleslav I of Poland
*** C2. [1m.] Oleg, Pr of Iskorosten (972-977), +k.a.977
*** C3. [2m.] Saint Vladimir I "Velikiy" "the Great", Pr of Novgorod (972-980), Great Pr of Kiev (980-1015), *ca 958, +Berestovo 15.7.1015; 1m: in Scandinavia btw 977-980 Olava (Eiriksdottir?) of Sweden; 2m: ca 977 (div 986, from 989 a nun) Rogneda/Ragnheid Ragnvaldsdottir of Norway (*ca 956 +1002 as a nun), dau.of Pr Rogvolod of Polotzk; 3m: Malfrida N (+1002) a Bohemian woman; 4m: Adela N, Bulgarian woman; 5m: Crimea 988 Anna Porphyrogeneta of Byzantium (*13.3.963, +1011); 6m: 1012 N (+1019), dau.of Duke Konrad I of Swabia by Rechlind of Germany
**** D1. [1m./4m.] Vysheslav, Pr of Novgorod (988-1010), +1010
**** D2. '''[2m.] Izyaslav, Pr of Polotzk (988-1001), *980/981, +1001'''; for his descendants see HERE
**** D3. [2m.] Vsevolod, Pr of Vladimir-Volynsk (988-995), +ca 995
**** D4. [2m.] Yaroslav I "Mudriy" "the Wise", Pr of Rostov (988-1010), Pr of Novgorod (1013-15), Great Pr of Kiev (1015-17)+(1019-54), *ca 986, +20.2.1054, bur St.Sophia Cathedral; 1m: Saint Anna (+1018, bur St.Sophia Cathedral);m.1019 Pss Ingigerd Olafsdottir of Sweden (+10.2.1050, bur St.Sophia Cathedral)
**** ...
**** D5. [2m.] Premyslava, +1015; m.Laszlo of Hungary (+1029)
**** D6. [2m.] Predslava; m.Duke Boleslav III of Bohemia (+1035), other sources say she was a concubine of Boleslaw I of Poland
**** D7. [3m.] Svyatoslav, Pr of Iskorosten (988-1015), +k.a.after 15.7.1015
**** D8. [4m.] Mstislav I "the Brave", Pr of Tmutarakan (988-1024), Great Pr of Chernigov (1024-36), *978, +1036; m.Maria N
***** E1. Yevstafiy, +young 1033
**** D9. [4m.] Saint Boris, Pr of Rostov (1010-15), *ca 990, +murdered 24/25.7.1015; he may have married Aestrid, sister of king Canute I the Great of England, Denmark and Norway
**** D10. [4m.] SaintGleb, Pr of Murom (1010-15), *ca 984, +murdered 5.8.1015
**** D11. [mother uncertain] Stanislav, Pr of Smolensk (978/1010-15), +before 1015
**** D12. [mother uncertain] Sudislav, Pr of Pskov, imprisoned 1035-59, +as a monk in Kiev 1063
**** D13. [6m.] Agafia (Agatha), +as a nun at Newcastle-upon-Tyne ca 1093; for her parentage see notes; m.1038/43 Edward (II) of England (*1016 +1057)
**** D14. [6m.] Dobronega-Maria, *after 1012, +1087; m.1038/42 King Kazimir I of Poland (*25.7.1016 +19.3.1058
Rurik is a legendary figure, but rather less legendary than many earlySwedish and Danish kings. The chronology seems relatively unproblematic,and Rurik could well have been a contemporary of Ragnar Lodbrok (on themost likely dating for him, 860-865). He ruled from, and reportedlyfounded, the city of Novgorod. In his time Kiev was also founded, in thecourse of an expedition to Constantinople, where Varangians are said tohave arrived as early as 839. In short order the center of Russian powermoved to Kiev, and further attempts on Constantinople were made. As thesewere usually rebuffed, sometimes with heavy losses (e.g. 971), a newmodus vivendi was struck -- peaceful trade. When Rurik's owndaughter-in-law, Helga, or Olga as it would become in Russian, visitedConstantinople and converted to Christianity, the way of the future beganto open up. Although the Russian Varangians were assimilating with theSlavs quickly, as late as Mstislav I the rulers are still well aware oftheir Norse origins and have Scandinavian names as well as Slavic ones --in his case Harald (which also happened to be the name of his Englishgrandfather).

Rurik, Grand Prince of Kiev
Born circa 800
Died in 879
Rurik, the Viking leader who is traditionally credited with foundingthe Russian state, was born in Friesland, a region in present-dayHolland, which his father controlled. After leading raids in France,England, and Germany, Rurikgained control of a large tract of land inJutland. However, he soon abandoned his claim under pressure from rivalchieftains.
In the 850s, Rurik and his brothers Sineus and Truvor led a band ofVikings into northwestern Russia where they established a settlement nearLake Ladoga in what is now northeastern Russia very near the border withFinland. Rurik soon moved part of the settlement to nearby Novgorod,according to legend, at the invitation of the local Slavs. There heestablished the seat of his power and built a fortress from which hecould rule the Russian lands. His rule extended as far south as Kievwhere his successors founded the powerful Kievan state, which lasteduntil the 1200s.
From Rurik came the house of Rurikovitch which ruled Russia until theend of the 16th century.Really nowadays there are two important questionsneeded to be solved: the first is about identification of Rurik, thesecond is whether he was true founder of the Rurikovichi House. For along time the problem of Ruruk's origin was rather political than simplyhistorical one. Have You heard anything about "Norman theory"? It'sdiscussion that has lasted for almost 250 years in Russia. The heart ofthe problem is if Rurik was the founder of state organization in ancientRussia (Kiev Russia) or aborigines had built it before. I am not going todwell on this question; I mentioned it only to say that an ideologicalaspect put off the decision of Rurik problem for many years. First of allabout Rurik origin. Histotians base on the text of the most earlychronicle reached us: "The Nestor's Letopis". It was created in themiddle ofXII c. by monk of Kievo-Pechorski abbey. According to thisdocument inhabitans of Novgorod, a city of Northen Russia, invited Rurikto rule in this city to defend against other Norman sea-robbers. It washappened in 862. The chronicle informs that Rurik took Ladoga, a verysmall town near Novgorod. After death of his two brothers, Sineus andThruvor in 864, he got their possessions, Beloozero ("White lake") andIzborsk. Novgorod became Rurik's capital. There hedied in 862. Thechronicle says he gave the government to his relative Oleg as his sonIgor was child. Sach way, in
accordance with Nestor chronical the beginning of Rurikovichi shows as:

1 Ruri=EA I Pr.of Novgorod (not Kiev !!!) d. 879
Pr. of Belozerskiy and of Izborsk (864)

2 Igor I Rurikivich Pr. of Kiev d. 945
3 Svjatoslav I Igorevich Pr. of Kiev b. Jul 942 d. 972 m. Predslav=
a
of Ungarn(?)
4 Jaropolk I Svjatoslavich Pr. of Kiev b. 961 d. 980 m. ?
4 Oleg Svjatoslavich Pr.of Drevljanskiy b. 962 d. 977
4 Wladimir I Svjatoslavich Gr.Pr.of Kiev d. 15 Jul 1015

In XVIII century Russian historian Tatishev in his "History of RussianState" named Rurik's wife, Efanda (sometimes Ingrid) of Urman. Heinformed also some interesting details about first Russian princes butunfortunately the documents which he used didn't reached us: they werelost while Napoleon's invasion in 1812. The chronicle says that Rurikcame with their brothers, Sineus and Thruvor. Now it's proves that theirnames are wrong-translated into Russian (by Nestor or any of hispredecessors) Scandinavian words "sine hus' (with his hause) and "truvoring"(with loyal guard) [sorry for my possible mistakes in spelling].So Rurik was alone, without any brothers.

In 1920s it was expressed an opinion that Rurik of Kiev is the same Rorikof Denmark (or of Friesland). That person was one of the three sons ofHalvdan, koning of Jutland. Halvdan had to leave his country ab. 782 andthen he received Frisie enfeoff from Charlemagne. Rorik had part inchristining of his brother Harald in Ingelheim upon Rhein, near Mainz(826). Harald came with his family and maybe his family, and Rorik too,were baptized. Halvdan had three sons:Harald, Rorik and Hemming and thisfact conforms to story about two brothers of Rurik of Kiev. The time ofaction coincides (first half-middle of IX c.). There are also othercoincidences. At that time, in accordance with Snorry Sturluson "Royalsagas" (begin.of XIII c.), we have in Norway konung Halvdan and his wifeRagnhilde, who had son Harald Finehairs. Snorry says that before Haraldwas born his mother had a dream: she saw luxuriant tree (speaking aboutfuture strong dynasty). The same legend said us Tatishev based on thelosed documents. Tatishev tells about a certain Russian Prince Gostomysl,whose daughter Urmila was mother of Rurik of Kiev. She also had the suchdream. Probably theRussian chronicle based on any Scandinavian one, moreearlier. Russian phililogist Sreznevskiy, an outstanding expert of Slavlanguages in XIX c., considered that "Gostomysl" is neither Russian norEastslav name, it was widespread where WestBaltic Slavs lived. We evenknow a certain Gostomysl who was mentioned in "Fuld annales" in 844. Thesame time again! Last time Rorik of Jutland was mentioned in 882 as deadand Russian chronicle says that he died in 879. Quite really ! Thedifference is that Western annales inform he died in Frisie, his fiefreceived from Charles the Bald, and Russian one in Novgorod. But we havereal reasons to think that Rurik of Kiev and Rorik of Jutland are thesame. But answering another question, if Rurik was the founder of thefirst Russian dynasty, we have to say no. The story about Rurik gave hispower to Oleg is fantasy. Oleg and Igor (that time a child) didn't eventry to stay in Novgorod, their native city, and at once moved to Kievthrough Smolensk. It was unlogical step, because Kiev and Novgorod werebitterest enemis. The most documents of XII-XV c. didn't know Rurik, theyoriginate Rurikovichi from Igor of Kiev. Name Rurik wasn't widespread inprincely house, only at the close of XI c. we can see the first princeRurik by name. Thank You for attention,

Alexander Agamov
Moscow, Russia
(e-mail adres niet gepubliceerd)[Custer February 1, 2002 Family Tree.FTW]

[merge G675.FTW]

Really nowadays there are two important questions needed to be solved:the first is about identification of Rurik, the second is whether he wastrue founder of the Rurikovichi House. For a long time the problem ofRuruk's origin was rather political than simply historical one. Have Youheard anything about "Norman theory"? It's discussion that has lasted foralmost 250 years in Russia. The heart of the problem is if Rurik was thefounder of state organization inancient Russia (Kiev Russia) oraborigines had built it before. I am not going to dwell on this question;I mentioned it only to say that an ideological aspect put off thedecision of Rurik problem for many years. First of all aboutRurikorigin. Histotians base on the text of the most early chronicle reachedus: "The Nestor's Letopis". It was created in the middle of XII c. bymonk of Kievo-Pechorski abbey. According to this document inhabitans ofNovgorod, a city of Northen Russia, invited Rurik to rule in this city todefend against other Norman sea-robbers. It was happened in 862. Thechronicle informs that Rurik took Ladoga, a very small town nearNovgorod. After death of his two brothers, Sineus and Thruvor in 864, hegot their possessions, Beloozero ("White lake") and Izborsk. Novgorodbecame Rurik's capital. There he died in 862. The chronicle says he gavethe government to his relative Oleg as his son Igor waschild. Sach way,in
accordance with Nestor chronical the beginning of Rurikovichi shows as:

1 Ruri=EA I Pr.of Novgorod (not Kiev !!!) d. 879
Pr. of Belozerskiy and of Izborsk (864)

2 Igor I Rurikivich Pr. of Kiev d. 945
3 Svjatoslav I Igorevich Pr. of Kiev b. Jul 942 d. 972 m. Predslav=
a
of Ungarn(?)
4 Jaropolk I Svjatoslavich Pr. of Kiev b. 961 d. 980 m. ?
4 Oleg Svjatoslavich Pr.of Drevljanskiy b. 962 d. 977
4 Wladimir I Svjatoslavich Gr.Pr.of Kiev d. 15 Jul 1015

In XVIII century Russian historian Tatishev in his "History of RussianState" named Rurik's wife, Efanda (sometimes Ingrid) of Urman. Heinformed also some interesting details about first Russian princes butunfortunately the documents which he used didn't reached us: they werelost while Napoleon's invasion in 1812. The chronicle says that Rurikcame with their brothers, Sineus and Thruvor. Now it's proves that theirnames are wrong-translated into Russian (by Nestor or any of hispredecessors) Scandinavian words "sine hus' (with his hause) and "truvoring"(with loyal guard) [sorry for my possible mistakes in spelling].So Rurik was alone, without any brothers.

In 1920s it was expressed an opinion that Rurik of Kiev is the same Rorikof Denmark (or of Friesland). That person was one of the three sons ofHalvdan, koning of Jutland. Halvdan had to leave his country ab. 782 andthen he received Frisie enfeoff from Charlemagne. Rorik had part inchristining of his brother Harald in Ingelheim upon Rhein, near Mainz(826). Harald came with his family and maybe his family, and Rorik too,were baptized. Halvdan had three sons:Harald, Rorik and Hemming and thisfact conforms to story about two brothers of Rurik of Kiev. The time ofaction coincides (first half-middle of IX c.). There are also othercoincidences. At that time, in accordance with Snorry Sturluson "Royalsagas" (begin.of XIII c.), we have in Norway konung Halvdan and his wifeRagnhilde, who had son Harald Finehairs. Snorry says that before Haraldwas born his mother had a dream: she saw luxuriant tree (speaking aboutfuture strong dynasty). The same legend said us Tatishev based on thelosed documents. Tatishev tells about a certain Russian Prince Gostomysl,whose daughter Urmila was mother of Rurik of Kiev. She also had the suchdream. Probably theRussian chronicle based on any Scandinavian one, moreearlier. Russian phililogist Sreznevskiy, an outstanding expert of Slavlanguages in XIX c., considered that "Gostomysl" is neither Russian norEastslav name, it was widespread where WestBaltic Slavs lived. We evenknow a certain Gostomysl who was mentioned in "Fuld annales" in 844. Thesame time again! Last time Rorik of Jutland was mentioned in 882 as deadand Russian chronicle says that he died in 879. Quite really ! Thedifference is that Western annales inform he died in Frisie, his fiefreceived from Charles the Bald, and Russian one in Novgorod. But we havereal reasons to think that Rurik of Kiev and Rorik of Jutland are thesame. But answering another question, if Rurik was the founder of thefirst Russian dynasty, we have to say no. The story about Rurik gave hispower to Oleg is fantasy. Oleg and Igor (that time a child) didn't eventry to stay in Novgorod, their native city, and at once moved to Kievthrough Smolensk. It was unlogical step, because Kiev and Novgorod werebitterest enemis. The most documents of XII-XV c. didn't know Rurik, theyoriginate Rurikovichi from Igor of Kiev. Name Rurik wasn't widespread inprincely house, only at the close of XI c. we can see the first princeRurik by name. Thank You for attention,

Alexander Agamov
Moscow, Russia
(e-mail adres niet gepubliceerd)

Rurick (Hrorekr) of Frisia, Jutland, Prince of the trading town ofNovgorod. He relapsed to paganism and was expelled from Frisia after 855.[Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners, 3rd ed., GenealogicalPublishing Company, Baltimore MD, 1998]

----------

Rurik, also spelled RORIK, or HROREKR, Russian RYURIK (d. c. AD 879), thesemilegendary founder of the Rurik dynasty of Kievan Rus.

Rurik was a Viking, or Varangian, prince. His story is told in theRussian Primary Chronicle (compiled at the beginning of the 12th century)but is not accepted at face value by modern historians. According to thechronicle, the people of Novgorod, tired of political strife, invited theVarangians about AD 862 to establish an orderly and just governmentthere. Hence, Rurik came with his two brothers and a large retinue(druzhina) and became ruler of the city andregion of Novgorod.

Some historians think that Rurik came from the Scandinavian peninsula orfrom Jutland (now in Denmark) and seized the town of Ladoga, on LakeLadoga. After establishing a stronghold there (c. 855), he may have gonesouthward along the Volkhov and captured Novgorod. Another possibility isthat Rurik and his army were mercenaries, hired to guard theVolkhov-Dnieper waterway, who turned against their employers.

Rurik's kinsman Oleg founded the grand principality of Kiev. Oleg'ssuccessor, Igor, believed to be Rurik's son, is considered the realfounder of the Russian princely house. [Encyclopaedia Britannica CD'97]Ancestral File Number: B6DP-M5
887236320. Storfyrste Rurik N.NSON av Novgorod (21836) was a Fyrste in 840 in Neugart. (21837) He was a Storfyrste in 865 in Novgorod. (21838) He died in 879. (21839) Han var grunnleggeren av det siste russiske riket.
!The Viking
Prince of Russia

!BIRTH: "Royal Ancestors" by Michel Call - Based on Call Family Pedigrees FHL
film 844805 & 844806, Family History Library, Salt Lake City, UT. Copy of
"Royal Ancestors" owned by Lynn Bernhard, Orem, UT.

Data From Lynn Jeffrey Bernhard, 2445 W 450 South #4, Springville UT 84663-4950
email - (e-mail adres niet gepubliceerd)
Rurik, the Dane, and a Viking, entered what became Russia i

--Other Fields

Ref Number: 1381
Stifter av det russ.rike-opr.en varg i fra Norden. Drog 862 o/Østersjøen med
sine to brødere og erobret landet fra Novogorod til Lille-Rusland. Fyrste av
Neugart-Storfyrste av Novogorod.
Line 6100 from GEDCOM File not recognizable or too long:
NAME Ryurik Grand Duke Of /NOVGOROD/
RESEARCH NOTES:
Dette er en sannsynlig, men ikke sikker, forbindelse mellom
Skjoldungene og Novgorod-dynastiet.
SOURCE NOTES:
Bu148
RESEARCH NOTES:
Grand Duke of Novgorod Grunnleggeren of det russiske rike.
_P_CCINFO 2-2438
OR "HROREKR""ROREK"; GRAND PRINCE OF NOVGOROD (NORSE) 862-879; PERHAPS IDENTICAL
WITH RORIK OF FRISIA; PRINCE OF THE TRADING TOWN OF NOVGOROD
Fyrste i Novgorod fra 862-79. Ukjent mor og kone.
BIOGRAPHY
Rurik (also known as Riurik or Rörek) was a Varangian (Viking). Having relapsed to paganism he was expelled from Frisia, in Jutland, and he went to Russia, where in 862 he gained control of Novgorod. There is debate over how Rurikcame to control Novgorod. Some chronicles state he was invited by the local tribes who wanted order, but it is more likely that he invited himself and seized Novgorod with two of his brothers. Rurik remained in power until his death in 879.
Line 6100 from GEDCOM File not recognizable or too long:
NAME Ryurik Grand Duke Of /NOVGOROD/
aka Ryurik (Riurik); poss. aka Hrorekr of FRISIA; Prince of KIEV; United the Russias;
(it is widely agreed that Rurik was a Viking, brought to rule by invitation, but his ancestry is uncertain.);
progenitor (eponym) of the RURIKID (RIURIKOVICH) Dynasty; Knyaz of KIEVAN RUS (RUTHENIA)

Varègues = VARANGIANS = Varyags = Vikings combatant en zone slave = Mercenaires vikings originaires de leur implantations scandinaves britanniques normande et danoise.

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